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Table 1 Measured outcomes on impacts of restricted visitation policies during the COVID-19 pandemic from patients, family members, and healthcare professionals

From: Restricted visitation policies in acute care settings during the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review

Impactsa Patients Family members Healthcare professionals
N = 16 N = 11 N = 18
Neurocognitive 3 (18.8%) 1 (9.1%) 1 (5.6%)
Delirium 3 (100%)b 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)
Euphoria 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (100%)b
Exaltation 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (100%)b
Insomnia 0 (0.0%) 1 (100%)b 1 (100%)b
Mental health 12 (75%) 8 (72.7%) 9 (50.0%)
Anxiety 4 (33.3%)b 3 (37.5%) 5 (55.6%)b
Burnout 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 5 (55.6%)b
Depression 1 (8.3%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (33.3%)
Distress 3 (25.0%) 4 (50.0%)b 1 (11.1%)
Grief 2 (16.7%) 4 (50.0%)b 1 (11.1%)
Mental health disorders 2 (16.7%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (11.1%)
Peritraumatic stress disorder 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (11.1%)
Posttraumatic stress disorder 2 (16.7%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (11.1%)
Psychosocial isolation 1 (8.3%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)
Quality of life and well-being 8 (50%) 8 (72.7%) 10 (55.6%)
Ethical climate 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (10.0%)
Fear, physical 1 (12.5%) 1 (12.5%) 2 (10.0%)
Quality of life 2 (25.0%) 3 (35.6%)b 4 (40.0%)b
Recovery 3 (37.5%)b 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)
Satisfaction 2 (25.0%) 2 (25.0%) 1 (10.0%)
Well-being 2 (25.0%) 2 (25.0%) 2 (20.0%)
Coping and daily functioning 9 (56.3%) 10 (90.9%) 12 (66.7%)
Access to support 5 (55.6%) 7 (70.0%)b 5 (41.7%)b
Disabilities, hearing and sight 0 (0.0%) 2 (20.0%) 0 (0.0%)
Education and guidelines 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (25.0%)
Leadership 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 4 (33.3%)
Palliative and spiritual care 4 (44.4%) 2 (20.0%) 0 (0.0%)
Post-discharge care 4 (44.4%) 3 (30.0%) 0 (0.0%)
  1. Percentages do not add up to 100 due to the possibility of multiple outcomes per record
  2. aCategories determined from data charting of included records
  3. bImpacts that were predominantly reported