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Table 1 Characteristics and outcomes of patients with Covid-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome, with or without acute cor pulmonale

From: Acute cor pulmonale in Covid-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome

  N patients
with data
All patients
(n = 117)
No ACP
(n = 73)
ACP
(n = 44)
p value
Patient characteristics      
 Age (years) 117 62.0 ± 10.3 63.2 ± 9.9 60.2 ± 10.9 0.132
 Male gender 117 94 (80%) 60 (82%) 34 (77%) 0.517
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 113 29.06 ± 5.69 28.27 ± 5.69 30.34 ± 5.50 0.061
 SAPS II 116 36 [28–46] 37 [30–47] 34 [27–46] 0.249
 SOFA score (Day 1) 117 5 [4–8.5] 5 [4–9] 5 [4–8] 0.503
Medical history      
 Diabetes 117 47 (40%) 36 (49%) 11 (25%) 0.009
 Arterial Hypertension 117 69 (59%) 47 (64%) 22 (50%) 0.125
 Heart failure (NYHA III-IV) 117 9 (8%) 8 (11%) 1 (2%) 0.150
 Chronic kidney disease 117 19 (16%) 17 (23%) 2 (5%) 0.008
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 117 11 (9%) 7 (10%) 4 (9%) 0.929
Respiratory parameters*      
 pH 112 7.36 [7.31–7.41] 7.36 [7.31–7.42] 7.38 [7.33–7.41] 0.366
 PaCO2 (mmHg) 112 42 [38–47] 42 [38–47] 44 [39–48] 0.313
 P/F ratio 116 132 [95–177] 135 [96–175] 129 [91–189] 0.869
 PEEP (cmH2O) 110 11 [9–12] 11 [8.75–12] 11.5 [9–12] 0.869
 Driving Pressure (cmH2O) 100 12 [10–15] 13 [11–15] 12 [10–14] 0.108
 Tidal Volume (mL/kg) 86 6.0 [5.7–6.4] 6.1 [5.9–6.4] 5.9 [5.6–6.5] 0.37
 Respiratory Rate (/min) 83 30 [26–32] 28 [25–32] 30 [28–34] 0.126
 Respiratory-system compliance (mL/cmH2O) 102 35 [28–40] 34 [27–40] 37 [29–44] 0.089
ARDS ACP risk score      
 Pneumonia as cause of ARDS 117 117 (100%) 73 (100%) 44 (100%)  > 0.99
 Driving pressure ≥ 18 cmH2O 100 11 (9%) 9 (12%) 2 (5%) 0.192
 P/F < 150 116 77 (66%) 46 (63%) 31 (70%) 0.468
 PaCO2 ≥ 48 mmHg 112 27 (23%) 16 (22%) 11 (25%) 0.773
 Total ACP risk score (0–4) 97 2 [1–2.5] 2 [1, 2] 2 [1,2,3] 0.978
Laboratory data**      
 Platelets (109/L) 115 244 [182–303] 244 [182–298] 243 [189–312] 0.92
 Fibrinogen (g/L) 94 6.82 ± 1.72 6.95 ± 1.65 6.62 ± 1.83 0.379
 D-dimer (ng/mL) 84 1948 [1140–4205] 1948 [1249–2956] 2335 [1006–8660] 0.551
CT-scan data      
 Thorax CT angiography*** 117 81 (69%) 54 (74%) 27 (61%) 0.431
 Pulmonary embolism 81 9 (8%) 2 (3%) 7 (16%) 0.007
ICU and outcome data****      
 Prone position 117 107 (91%) 64 (88%) 43 (98%) 0.087
 Shock 117 91 (78%) 55 (75%) 36 (82%) 0.414
Nitrous oxide use 117 26 (22%) 14 (19%) 12 (27%) 0.308
 Tracheotomy 117 19 (16%) 8 (11%) 11 (25%) 0.046
 VV-ECMO 117 22 (19%) 10 (14%) 12 (27%) 0.069
 Ventilation days (survivors) 71 17 [10–38] 15 [8–34] 22 [11–42] 0.395
 Ventilator-free days at D28 115 0 [0–13] 0 [0–15] 0 [0–13] 0.516
 D28 all-cause mortality 117 44 (38%) 29 (40%) 15 (34%) 0.542
  1. ACP: Acute cor pulmonale; CT: Computed Tomography Scan; NYHA: New York Heart Association; PEEP: Positive End-Expiratory Pressure; SAPS II: Simplified Acute Physiology Score II; SOFA: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; VV-ECMO: Veno-Venous ExtraCorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
  2. *Data obtained at the time of echocardiographic evaluation; **Data obtained within 48 h (either before or after) of the echocardiographic evaluation; ***CT scan was performed a median of 2 [0–4] days before the echocardiographic evaluation; **** Data regarding the totality of ICU stay