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Table 4 Predictors of PTSD symptoms over the first year of bereavement (N = 319)

From: Course and predictors of posttraumatic stress-related symptoms among family members of deceased ICU patients during the first year of bereavement

  AOR 95% CI p
Time since a beloved’s death (months)
1 Ref    
3 0.062 0.016 0.244 < .0001
6 0.052 0.018 0.146 < .0001
13 0.214 0.106 0.431 < .0001
Patient characteristics
Age (years) 0.980 0.924 1.040 0.510
Gender (female vs. male) 2.867 0.884 9.293 0.079
Diagnosis (cancer vs. non-cancer) 0.377 0.124 1.151 0.087
APACHE II scorea 0.976 0.905 1.052 0.530
ICU length of stay (days) 1.036 1.006 1.066 0.019
Family characteristics
Age (years) 0.978 0.906 1.055 0.564
Gender (female vs. male) 2.644 0.834 8.380 0.099
Relationship with the patient (vs. Others)     
 Spouse 0.940 0.245 3.598 0.927
 Adult child 0.230 0.024 2.238 0.205
Marital status (married vs. unmarried) 1.963 0.515 7.486 0.323
Educational attainment (> vs. ≤ junior high school) 1.582 0.471 5.307 0.458
Financial insufficiency to make ends meet (yes vs. no) 3.166 1.159 8.647 0.025
Preexisting physical and mental health problems in family membersb
Hospital admission with physical problems 1.156 0.123 10.853 0.899
Emergency room visits 3.395 0.773 14.908 0.106
Pain medication use 3.408 1.230 9.441 0.018
Mood medication use 0.534 0.052 5.526 0.599
Family’s perceived social supportc 0.937 0.911 0.965 < .0001
Process-based indicators of high-quality end-of-life cared
Physician-family prognostic communication 1.686 0.225 12.666 0.612
Family meetings conducted 1.022 0.357 2.926 0.968
Palliative care provided 1.549 0.443 5.409 0.493
Social worker involvement 0.501 0.111 2.273 0.371
Do-not-resuscitate order issued 0.073 0.011 0.490 0.007
Death without cardiopulmonary resuscitation 10.871 0.343 344.089 0.176
Withdrawal of life-sustaining treatmentse 0.977 0.374 2.551 0.961
Family presence at patient’s death 2.247 0.752 6.707 0.147
Family satisfaction with end-of-life care in ICUsf
Satisfaction with ICU care 0.988 0.944 1.034 0.604
Satisfaction with decision-making 0.980 0.944 1.018 0.310
  1. aAPACHE: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation
  2. bReference for each preexisting physical and mental health problem: Not experiencing the problem
  3. cMeasured by the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey
  4. dReference for each quality indicator: Not experiencing the event
  5. eLife-sustaining treatments included intubation with mechanical ventilation support, vasopressors, hemodialysis, enteral and/or parenteral hydration and nutrition, antibiotics, transfusion of blood products
  6. fMeasured by the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit questionnaire