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Table 2 Control of spontaneous respiration

From: Breathing variability—implications for anaesthesiology and intensive care

  Location Stimulus Pathway
Central chemoreceptors Ventral medulla CSF pH Direct effect
Peripheral chemoreceptors Bifurcation of common carotid artery, aortic arch Arterial pH, PaO2, PaCO2, Glossopharyngeal nerve, vagal nerve
Mechanoreceptors Tracheal and bronchial muscle spindles Stretching of lung parenchyma Vagal nerve
Airways and alveoli Temperature, dust, noxious gases Vagal nerve
Locomotion receptors Muscles and joints Limb movement Spinal pathways
Other Cerebral cortex and (para)limbic system Emotion, pain, arousal Monosynaptic connections
Cerebral cortex Conscious/voluntary control Corticospinal pathways