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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of weak and non-weak critically ill patients

From: Altered cholesterol homeostasis in critical illness-induced muscle weakness: effect of exogenous 3-hydroxybutyrate

  Weak patientsA
(n = 232)
Non-weak patientsA
(n = 368)
p value
Age—median (IQR) 64.3 (55.8–73.1) 62.2 (50.7–73.3) 0.01
Male gender—n (%) 132 (56.9) 221 (60.1) 0.4
BMI (kg/m2)—median (IQR) 24.8 (22.1–29.1) 25.2 (22.9–28.4) 0.3
NRS ≥ 5—n (%) 95 (40.9) 82 (22.3) < 0.0001
APACHEII—median (IQR) 35 (29–40) 26 (18–34) < 0.0001
Diabetes—n (%) 37 (15.9) 59 (16.0) 1
Malignancy—n (%) 67 (28.9) 96 (26.1) 0.4
Pre-admission dialysis—n (%) 4 (1.7) 2 (0.5) 0.2
Sepsis upon admission—n (%) 141 (60.8) 123 (33.4) < 0.0001
ICU admission categories—n (%)    < 0.0001
 Surgical ICU, emergency 100 (43.1) 159 (43.2)  
 Cardiac elective surgery 63 (27.2) 139 (37.8)  
 Other elective surgery 8 (3.4) 27 (7.3)  
 Medical ICU 61 (26.3) 43 (11.7)  
Randomized to early-PN—n (%) 127 (54.7) 168 (45.6) 0.03
  1. A Muscle weakness was assessed by the Medical Research Center (MRC) sum score: a score of less than 48 is considered weak [24]. BMI is body mass index, or weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters. APACHEII reflects scores on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) range from 0 to 71, with higher scores indicating a greater severity of illness. NRS reflects Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) scores which range from 0 to 7, with higher scores indicating a higher risk of malnutrition