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Table 1 Comparisons of clinical and laboratory variables across classes on day 0

From: Individualized resuscitation strategy for septic shock formalized by finite mixture modeling and dynamic treatment regimen

Variables Total (n = 1437) 1 (n = 380) 2 (n = 115) 3 (n = 723) 4 (n = 81) 5 (n = 138) p
Age (years), median (IQR) 67.00 (54.00, 78.00) 72.50 (62.00, 82.00) 65.00 (55.00, 75.50) 67.00 (55.50, 77.00) 77.00 (61.00, 84.00) 42.00 (30.00, 51.00) < 0.001
Gender, male (%) 912 (63) 245 (64) 71 (62) 450 (62) 59 (73) 87 (63) 0.425
Weight (kg), median (IQR) 64.00 (56.00, 70.00) 64.00 (54.00, 69.00) 64.00 (58.00, 70.00) 64.00 (60.00, 71.00) 62.00 (53.00, 65.00) 65.00 (60.00, 70.00) < 0.001
Comorbidity, n (%)        < 0.001
CRF 51 ( 4) 13 (3) 2 (2) 27 (4) 5 (6) 4 (3)  
None 681 (47) 162 (43) 56 (49) 333 (46) 35 (43) 95 (69)  
Diabetes 288 (20) 76 (20) 28 (24) 145 (20) 18 (22) 21 (15)  
Hypertension 336 (23) 99 (26) 26 (23) 176 (24) 20 (25) 15 (11)  
CAD 81 ( 6) 30 (8) 3 (3) 42 (6) 3 (4) 3 (2)  
Site of infection, n (%)        < 0.001
Abdomen 544 (38) 112 (29) 46 (40) 332 (46) 7 (9) 47 (34)  
Thorax 690 (48) 226 (59) 49 (43) 281 (39) 70 (86) 64 (46)  
Brain 13 ( 1) 6 (2) 1 (1) 1 (0) 1 (1) 4 (3)  
Blood 36 ( 3) 8 (2) 3 (3) 17 (2) 3 (4) 5 (4)  
Soft tissue 50 ( 3) 7 (2) 6 (5) 26 (4) 0 (0) 11 (8)  
UTI 104 ( 7) 21 (6) 10 (9) 66 (9) 0 (0) 7 (5)  
Type, n (%)        < 0.001
Medical 800 (56) 232 (61) 67 (58) 361 (50) 69 (85) 71 (51)  
Elective surgery 179 (12) 52 (14) 15 (13) 89 (12) 3 (4) 20 (14)  
Emergent surgery 458 (32) 96 (25) 33 (29) 273 (38) 9 (11) 47 (34)  
Hours on day 0, median (IQR) 13.00 (9.00, 17.00) 13.50 (10.00, 17.00) 12.50 (8.00, 19.00) 13.00 (9.00, 17.00) 13.40 (8.00, 18.00) 14.40 (10.62, 17.88) 0.119
MV, n (%) 1227 (85) 329 (87) 104 (90) 600 (83) 78 (96) 116 (84) 0.007
APACHEII, median (IQR) 22.00 (16.00, 27.00) 21.00 (14.00, 26.00) 25.00 (19.00, 30.00) 22.00 (17.00, 28.00) 23.00 (17.00, 26.00) 20.00 (14.00, 24.75) < 0.001
Use of norepinephrine, n (%) 1259 (88) 312 (82) 108 (94) 659 (91) 65 (80) 115 (83) < 0.001
Maximum HR (/min), Mean ± SD 122.25 ± 23.46 108.70 ± 21.08 133.97 ± 19.78 126.72 ± 22.63 119.22 ± 22.20 128.18 ± 21.39 < 0.001
Maximum SBP (mmHg), median (IQR) 132.00 (113.00, 147.00) 137.00 (120.00, 150.00) 128.00 (110.00, 147.50) 130.00 (110.00, 145.00) 136.00 (120.00, 150.00) 130.50 (111.00, 142.75) 0.001
Minimum SBP (mmHg), median (IQR) 87.00 (74.00, 98.00) 91.00 (77.00, 102.00) 83.00 (70.00, 98.00) 86.00 (71.00, 98.00) 88.00 (74.00, 98.00) 89.00 (78.00, 98.20) 0.002
Temperature (℃), median (IQR) 37.50 (36.90, 38.40) 37.30 (36.80, 37.80) 37.40 (36.70, 38.50) 37.60 (37.00, 38.50) 37.50 (37.00, 38.20) 38.50 (37.60, 39.20) < 0.001
Minimum pH, median (IQR) 7.35 (7.28, 7.41) 7.40 (7.37, 7.45) 7.24 (7.14, 7.31) 7.32 (7.26, 7.37) 7.38 (7.30, 7.47) 7.41 (7.37, 7.45) < 0.001
Minimum HCO3, median (IQR) 20.60 (17.00, 23.40) 23.20 (21.90, 25.70) 15.30 (11.40, 18.45) 18.00 (15.60, 20.50) 34.30 (32.60, 37.50) 23.10 (21.63, 25.20) < 0.001
Minimum BE, median (IQR) − 4.20 (− 7.90, − 0.60) − 0.70 (− 2.40, 1.60) − 11.00 (− 14.90, − 6.75) − 6.90 (− 9.50, − 4.44) 8.90 (5.00, 12.60) − 0.80 (− 2.68, 1.00) < 0.001
Maximum lactate (mmol/L), median (IQR) 2.70 (1.80, 4.60) 1.90 (1.40, 2.50) 11.10 (9.05, 14.25) 3.40 (2.10, 5.00) 1.90 (1.40, 2.90) 2.00 (1.63, 2.98) < 0.001
Minimum PF, median (IQR) 199.00 (135.17, 258.00) 210.00 (160.00, 280.00) 174.00 (99.50, 219.91) 187.50 (130.00, 250.00) 169.00 (117.83, 232.00) 210.00 (153.32, 297.79) < 0.001
Maximum PaCO2 (mmHg), median (IQR) 39.00 (33.00, 46.00) 40.00 (35.00, 44.05) 41.00 (31.50, 47.60) 36.20 (30.25, 44.00) 60.00 (50.00, 77.00) 38.00 (33.00, 42.80) < 0.001
Hb (g/l), median (IQR) 103.00 (85.00, 124.00) 97.00 (81.00, 115.00) 100.00 (85.50, 125.00) 107.00 (88.00, 126.00) 107.00 (89.00, 127.00) 105.50 (87.25, 129.50) < 0.001
Hct (%), median (IQR) 29.90 (26.30, 36.10) 27.90 (26.00, 32.90) 30.00 (26.30, 36.65) 31.40 (26.30, 37.25) 32.00 (26.30, 38.90) 29.00 (26.30, 36.50) < 0.001
Platelet (\(\times {10}^{9}/\mathrm{L}\)), median (IQR) 136.00 (81.00, 212.00) 148.00 (89.75, 214.25) 107.00 (47.00, 182.00) 131.00 (75.00, 200.00) 188.00 (122.00, 267.00) 146.50 (90.50, 236.75) < 0.001
RDWCV, median (IQR) 14.00 (13.00, 16.00) 14.00 (13.00, 16.00) 14.00 (13.00, 15.40) 14.00 (13.00, 15.00) 14.00 (13.00, 15.00) 14.00 (13.00, 15.00) 0.108
Serum creatinine (mmol/L), median (IQR) 113.60 (71.00, 203.00) 92.05 (61.86, 134.85) 175.80 (105.65, 265.48) 138.00 (87.74, 236.15) 76.00 (51.80, 121.00) 79.55 (56.08, 115.84) < 0.001
Intake volume (mL), median (IQR) 2866.00 (1900.00, 3976.00) 2480.00 (1712.00, 3457.25) 3667.00 (2102.50, 5521.00) 2962.00 (1926.00, 4045.00) 2571.00 (1806.15, 3200.50) 3448.50 (2131.25, 5115.50) < 0.001
Output volume (mL), median (IQR) 1440.00 (800.00, 2415.00) 1450.50 (863.00, 2219.25) 1360.00 (480.00, 2414.50) 1320.00 (745.00, 2280.00) 1314.00 (628.00, 1930.00) 2537.00 (1410.75, 3545.00) < 0.001
Urine output (mL), median (IQR) 970.00 (400.00, 1695.00) 1150.00 (646.25, 1801.25) 470.00 (206.00, 1420.00) 795.00 (320.00, 1422.50) 950.00 (515.00, 1740.00) 1835.00 (1092.50, 2990.00) < 0.001
Hospital LOS, median (IQR) 19.00 (11.00, 32.00) 20.50 (12.00, 34.00) 19.00 (8.00, 36.50) 18.00 (10.00, 30.00) 22.00 (14.00, 36.00) 20.00 (12.00, 34.75) 0.019
ICU LOS, median (IQR) 9.00 (5.00, 17.00) 10.00 (6.00, 21.00) 9.00 (5.00, 16.00) 8.00 (5.00, 15.00) 14.00 (7.00, 23.00) 10.00 (5.25, 18.75) < 0.001
Mortality, n (%) 423 (29) 120 (32) 47 (41) 193 (27) 34 (42) 29 (21) < 0.001
  1. Bold significances are shown in the last column (p < 0.001)
  2. All variables were recorded on day 0. LOS length of stay, IQR interquartile range, CRF chronic renal failure, CAD coronary artery diseases, UTI urinary tract infection, HR heart rate, SD standard deviation, ICU intensive care unit, RDWCV red blood cell distribution width, BE base excess, Hct hematocrit