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Table 1 Comparison of baseline characteristics and outcomes

From: Impact of dexamethasone use to prevent from severe COVID-19-induced acute kidney injury

  Total
n = 100
First wave
n = 52
Second wave
n = 48
p-value
Baseline characteristics     
Males, No. (%) 76 (76) 38 (73) 38 (79) 0.49
Age (years), mean (SD) 63 ± 11 61 ± 12 66 ± 10 0.009
BMI, mean (SD) 30 ± 5 31 ± 4 30 ± 5 0.20
CKD, No. (%) 10 (10) 4 (8) 6 (12) 0.51
Hypertension, No. (%) 59 (59) 30 (58) 29 (60) 0.84
Diabetes, No. (%) 33 (33) 15 (29) 18 (37) 0.40
Ischemic cardiopathy, No. (%) 13 (13) 4 (8) 9 (19) 0.14
Chronic respiratory disease, No. (%) 17 (17) 7 (13) 10 (21) 0.43
Immunosuppression, No. (%) 9 (9) 4 (8) 5 (10) 0.73
RASi exposure, No. (%) 35 (35) 18 (35) 17 (36) 1
Time between first symptoms and ICU admission (days), mean (SD) 8 ± 4 8 ± 4 8 ± 3 0.74
Time between first symptoms and hospital admission (days), mean (SD) 7 ± 3 7 ± 3 6 ± 4 0.49
Time between hospital admission and ICU admission (days), mean (SD) 1 ± 2 1 ± 2 2 ± 3 0.31
In the first 24 h of ICU hospitalization (before AKI development)     
SAPS II, median [IQR] 40 [30–52] 40 [25–60] 40 [33–46] 0.65
Catecholamine use, No. (%) 9 (9) 8 (15) 1 (2) 0.03
Mechanical ventilation, No. (%) 48 (48) 39 (75) 9 (19)  < 0.001
Worst PaO2/FiO2 ratio, median [IQR] 146 [98–192] 146 [89–205] 146 [116–181] 0.76
Intravenous fluid therapy (L), median [IQR] 2.36 [1.62–3.15] 2.77 [2.13–3.63] 1.94 [1.42–2.70] 0.0023
Dexamethasone use, No. (%) 48 (48) 0 (0) 48 (100) 1
Main outcomes     
ICU mortality, No. (%) 19 (19) 7 (13) 12 (25) 0.20
ICU length (days), median [IQR] 12 [6–25] 13 [7–27] 11 [5–22] 0.26
Hospitalization length (days), median [IQR] 26 [14–39] 27 [17–45] 23 [13–30] 0.04
Mortality at D28, No. (%) 21 (21) 9 (17) 12 (25) 0.46
Renal outcomes     
AKI, No. (%) 56 (56) 39 (75) 17 (35)  < 0.001
AKI stage     0.24
KDIGO 1, No. (%) 19 (34) 13 (33) 6 (35)  
KDIGO 2, No. (%) 18 (32) 15 (38) 3 (18)  
KDIGO 3, No. (%) 19 (34) 11 (28) 8 (47)  
Renal replacement therapy, No. (%) 12 (12) 7 (13) 5 (10) 0.76
Time between AKI and ICU admission (days), median [IQR] 4 [2–8] 4 [3–7] 4 [1–9] 0.74
AKD, No. (%) 24 (24) 14 (27) 10 (21) 0.49
  1. Chronic respiratory disease includes chronic obstructive bronchopneumonia and asthma. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) definition was used to define AKI Stages 1, 2 and 3. Serum creatinine (SCr) and urine output were both taken into account. Continuous variables are reported as mean (standard deviation) or median [interquartile range] if the variable did not fit a normal distribution and categorical variables are reported as numbers (percentages). Quantitative variables were compared using a t-test, and qualitative variables were compared using Fisher’s exact test
  2. AKD, acute kidney disease; AKI, acute kidney injury; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; D28, day 28; KDIGO, Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes; ICU, intensive care unit; IQR, interquartile; SAPSII, Simplified Acute Physiology Score; SCr, serum creatinine; SD, standard deviation; RASi, renin–angiotensin system inhibitor