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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of COVID-19 patients

From: The predicting roles of carcinoembryonic antigen and its underlying mechanism in the progression of coronavirus disease 2019

  Total patients (N = 300)
No %
Age (year)   
Median (range) 45.0(0 ~ 93)  
Average ± SD   
Categorical age   
 < 40 26 8.7
40–60 110 36.7
 > 60 164 54.7
Gender   
Female 130 43.3
Male 170 56.7
Fever   
No 25 8.3
Yes 275 91.7
Cough   
No 75 25
Yes 225 75
Expectoration   
No 221 73.7
Yes 79 26.3
Shortness of breath   
No 128 42.7
Yes 172 57.3
Diarrhea   
No 293 97.7
Yes 7 2.3
Comorbidities   
No 256 85.3
Yes 44 14.7
Diabetes mellitus   
No 251 83.7
Yes 49 16.3
Hypertension   
No 193 64.3
Yes 107 35.7
Cardiovascular disease   
No 272 90.7
Yes 28 9.3
Cerebral infarction   
No 286 95.3
Yes 14 4.7
Glucocorticoid   
No 272 90.7
Yes 28 9.3
Imaging score   
1.0–2.0 41 13.7
3.0–4.0 83 27.7
5.0–6.0 63 21
7.0–8.0 113 37.7
Nasal catheter   
No 141 47
Yes 159 53
High flow oxygen intake   
No 216 72
Yes 84 28
Noninvasive ventilation   
No 238 79.3
Yes 62 20.7
Invasive ventilation   
No 222 74
Yes 78 26
Mode of ventilation   
No oxygen 47 15.7
OWNC 99 33.0
HFNC 33 11.0
NIV 38 12.7
IV 83 27.6
Stage   
Mild 47 15.7
Severe 132 44.0
Critical 121 40.3
CEA (ng/ml)   
Median (range) 3.25 (0.50 ~ 66.60)  
Average ± SD 6.88 ± 10.20  
Categorical CEA   
0–5 194 64.7
 > 5 106 35.3
Albumin (g/l)   
 < 30 125 41.7
30–35 109 36.3
35–40 51 17
 > 40 15 5
Hemoglobin (g/l)   
 < 115 108 36
115–150 182 60.7
 > 150 10 3.3
Neutrophils (× 109/l)   
 < 1.8 17 5.7
1.8–6.3 161 53.6
 > 6.3 122 40.7
Lymphocytes (× 109/l)   
 < 1.1 199 66.3
1.1–3.2 101 33.7
CRP (mg/l)   
0–6 31 10.3
6–160 202 67.3
 > 160 67 22.3
Hypokalemia   
No   85.7
Yes 43 14.3
Hypocalcemia   
No 138 46
Yes 162 54
Hyponatremia   
No 275 91.7
Yes 25 8.3
Hyperkalemia   
No 287 95.7
Yes 13 4.3
Hypernatremia   
No 295 98.3
Yes 5 1.7
Overall survival   
Alive 174 58.0
Dead 126 42.0
Survival time (day)   
Median (Range) 24 (6 ~ 66)  
Average ± SD 26.60 ± 11.09