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Table 1 Overall seasonal trends of CS cases in Germany from 2007 to 2015

From: Seasonal trends of incidence and outcomes of cardiogenic shock : findings from a large, nationwide inpatients sample with 441,696 cases

  Winter (N = 115,710; 26.2%) Spring (N = 108,949; 24.6%) Summer (N = 105,980; 23.9%) Fall (N = 111,057; 25.1%) p value
Demographics      
Age, years 71.1 ± 13.6 70.7 ± 13.7 70.8 ± 13.8 71.0 ± 13.7 < 0.001
Sex, female 44,927 (38.8%) 42,141 (38.6%) 41,191 (38.8%) 43,124 (38.8%) 0.814
Outcomes      
In-hospital mortality 70,727 (61.1%) 64,382 (59.0%) 62,379 (58.8%) 67,381 (60.6%) < 0.001
Clinical presentation      
Acute myocardial infarction 54,780 (47.3%) 52,745 (48.4%) 50,500 (47.6%) 53,967 (48.5%) < 0.001
Pre-hospital cardiac arrest 16,540 (14.2%) 16,272 (14.9%) 16,145 (15.2%) 16,956 (15.2%) < 0.001
Intra-hospital cardiac arrest 44,038 (38.0%) 40,818 (37.4%) 39,705 (37.4%) 42,890 (38.6%) < 0.001
Post cardiothoracic surgery 4060 (3.5%) 3920 (3.6%) 3842 (3.6%) 3899 (3.5%) 0.329
Severe pulmonary embolism 4629 (4.0%) 4251 (3.9%) 4374 (4.1%) 4626 (4.1%) 0.006
Acute myocarditis 452 (0.3%) 318 (0.2%) 332 (0.3%) 368 (0.3%) < 0.001
Treatment      
Invasive ventilation 52,354 (45.2%) 48,356 (44.3%) 46,957 (44.3%) 49,505 (44.5%) < 0.001
Non-invasive ventilation 13,979 (12.0%) 13,220 (12.1%) 13,083 (12.3%) 13,619 (12.2%) 0.271
Dialysis 19,412 (16.7%) 18,307 (16.8%) 17,634 (16.6%) 18,423 (16.5%) 0.459
IABP 11,812 (10.2%) 11,307 (10.3%) 10,689 (10.0%) 10,777 (9.7%) < 0.001
LVAD 507 (0.4%) 494 (0.4%) 496 (0.4%) 468 (0.4%) 0.398
VA-ECMO 2374 (2.0%) 2453 (2.2%) 2430 (2.2%) 2568 (2.3%) < 0.001
  1. IABP intra-aortic balloon pump, LVAD left ventricular assist device, VA-ECMO veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation