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Table 1 Baseline characteristics for all patients and those who met and did not meet the primary endpoint of persistent severe AKI

From: External validation of urinary C–C motif chemokine ligand 14 (CCL14) for prediction of persistent acute kidney injury

  All patients No persistent severe AKI Persistent severe AKI p valuec
Patients 195 167 28  
Male 113 (58%) 95 (57%) 18 (64%) 0.538
Agea (years) 66 (56–75) 66 (56–75) 68.5 (58–76) 0.592
Race
 White or Caucasian 148 (76%) 126 (75%) 22 (79%)  
 Black or African American 25 (13%) 23 (14%) 2 (7%)  
 Other/unknown 22 (11%) 18 (11%) 4 (14%) 0.607
Chronic comorbidities
 Chronic kidney disease 21 (11%) 12 (7%) 9 (32%) < 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus 77 (39%) 59 (35%) 18 (64%) 0.006
 Heart failure 43 (22%) 37 (22%) 6 (21%) 1.000
 Coronary artery disease 70 (36%) 55 (33%) 15 (54%) 0.054
 Hypertension 141 (72%) 118 (71%) 23 (82%) 0.258
 COPD 47 (24%) 42 (25%) 5 (18%) 0.482
 Cancer 54 (28%) 48 (29%) 6 (21%) 0.500
Reason for ICU admission
 Respiratory 90 (46%) 76 (46%) 14 (50%) 0.687
 Surgery 67 (34%) 58 (35%) 9 (32%) 0.834
 Cardiovascular 67 (34%) 54 (32%) 13 (46%) 0.196
 Sepsis 42 (22%) 36 (22%) 6 (21%) 1.000
 Neurological 18 (9%) 18 (11%) 0 (0%) 0.081
 Trauma 7 (4%) 6 (4%) 1 (4%) 1.000
 Other 30 (15%) 24 (14%) 6 (21%) 0.394
Baseline serum creatinine (mg/dL) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 1.2 (0.8–2.2) 0.006
Maximum KDIGO stage before sample collection
 Stage 2 172 (88%) 160 (96%) 12 (43%)  
 Stage 3 23 (12%) 7 (4%) 16 (57%) < 0.001
eGFR < 60 mL/min 88 (45%) 68 (42%) 20 (74%) 0.003
Diuretics 75 (38%) 63 (38%) 12 (43%) 0.676
Vasopressor 101 (52%) 80 (48%) 21 (75%) 0.008
Mechanical ventilation 164 (84%) 138 (83%) 26 (93%) 0.263
Fluid balance (mL)a 2044 (248–3362) 1879 (180–3154) 3226 (695–4554) 0.025
Non-renal APACHE III score 62 (43–86) 60 (42–85) 80 (58–104) 0.002
Time from ICU admission to enrollment (h) 14 (6–20) 14 (6–20) 14 (4–19) 0.711
Maximum serum creatinineb (mg/dL) between enrollment and time of first sample collection after onset of AKI Stage 2 or 3 1.3 (0.9–1.8) 1.2 (0.8–1.6) 2.4 (1.4–3.2) < 0.001
Time between enrollment and first urinary CCL14 sample collection (h) 29 (15–60) 33 (15–60) 21 (0–34) 0.057
  1. aFluid balance was defined as the difference in total fluid intake minus output from the day prior to through the day of study enrollment
  2. bSpecifically, this is the greatest (maximum) of all serum creatinine concentrations (mg/dL) collected as standard of care between the time of study enrollment and the time of the first urine sample collection for CCL14 testing after the onset of AKI Stage 2 or 3. This is expressed as a median (interquartile range)
  3. cP values for age, baseline serum creatinine, non-renal APACHE III score, time from ICU admission to enrollment, serum creatinine at time of first sample collection after onset of AKI Stage 2 or 3, and fluid balance were computed by the Mann–Whitney U test. All others were computed by Fisher’s Exact Test. P values less than 0.05 are in bold