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Table 3 Comparison of survivors and non-survivors in the whole population of COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome

From: COVID-19 ARDS is characterized by higher extravascular lung water than non-COVID-19 ARDS: the PiCCOVID study

Variable Survivors (N = 47) Non-survivors (N = 73) p value
Demographic characteristics of ARDS with or without COVID-19
Age (years) 58 (44–70) 66 (59–73) 0.028
Male (n) 30 (64) 50 (68) 0.741
BMI (kg/m2) 27.4 (23.7–31.8) 28.8 (24.2–32.8) 0.314
SAPS II score 46 (34–58) 48 (38–66) 0.161
SOFA total 7 (4–10) 8 (4–10) 0.402
SOFA respiration 3 (2–3) 3 (2–4) 0.529
SOFA hepatic 0 (0–0) 0 (0–1) 0.091
SOFA cardiovascular 4 (0–4) 4 (0–4) 0.848
SOFA coagulation 0 (0–0) 0 (0–1) 0.032
SOFA central nervous system 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0.102
SOFA renal 1 (0–2) 1 (0–2) 0.878
Medical history
Hypertension (n) 18 (38) 35 (48) 0.395
Diabetes mellitus (n) 16 (34) 24 (33) 0.947
COPD/asthma (n) 5 (11) 9 (12) 0.992
Chronic kidney disease (n) 5 (11) 12 (16) 0.534
Immunodepression (n) 14 (30) 30 (41) 0.289
Smoking (n) 11 (23) 22 (30) 0.551
Alcohol abuse (n) 13 (28) 12 (16) 0.212
Adjunctive therapies
Prone position (n) 33 (70) 56 (77) 0.562
Sessions (n) 1(1–4) 2 (1–5) 0.218
NMBA (n) 33 (70) 55 (75) 0.683
Corticosteroids (n) 30 (64) 46 (63) 0.918
Inhaled nitric oxide (n) 1 (2) 9 (12) 0.102
ECMO (n) 4 (9) 20 (27) 0.022
Renal replacement therapy (n) 11 (23) 28 (38) 0.132
Time from MV to TPTD (days) 1 (0–2) 0 (0–1) 0.030
ICU length of stay (days) 21 (15–32) 13 (6–21)  < 0.001
Duration of MV (days) 17 (10–28) 11 (4–19) 0.002
MV free days at Day 28 (days) 12 (0–18) 0 (0–0)  < 0.001
Respiratory characteristics at baseline
PaO2/FiO2 (mmHg) 138 (109–177) 131 (93–166) 0.305
TV (mL/kg PBW) 6.0 (5.7–6.3) 5.9 (5.7–6.2) 0.135
PEEP (cmH2O) 12 (10–15) 12 (10–15) 0.978
DP (cmH2O) 12 (10–15) 13 (10–16) 0.422
Crs (mL/cmH2O) 33 (27–41) 30 (22–38) 0.125
Maximal/minimal values of respiratory characteristics during TPTD monitoring
PaO2/FiO2min (mmHg) 110 (85–131) 81 (70–104) 0.000
PEEPmax (cmH2O) 14 (12–16) 14 (12–16) 0.939
DPmax (cmH2O) 16 (12–18) 17 (14–22) 0.015
Crsmin (mL/cmH2O) 26 (21–32) 24 (16–27) 0.021
Hemodynamic variables and CRP at baseline
CI (L/min/m2) 3.2 (2.6–4.1) 2.8 (2.1 3.7) 0.038
GEDVi (mL/m2) 696 (580–796) 739 (594–886) 0.235
EVLWi (mL/kg) 14 (10–18) 17 (13–21) 0.024
PVPI 3.1 (2.3–3.7) 3.3 (2.5–4.4) 0.118
GEF (%) 20 (16–25) 18 (14–23) 0.054
NE (µg/kg/min) 0.42 (0.14–0.83) 0.61 (0.29–1.29) 0.063
Lactate (mmol/L) 1.85 (1.20–2.50) 2.00 (1.40–2.80) 0.366
CRP (mg/L) 209 (133–293) 225 (123–315) 0.451
Maximal/minimal values of TPTD variables during TPTD monitoring
CImin (L/min/m2) 2.6 (2.0–3.1) 2.4 (2.0–2.7) 0.153
GEDVimin (mL/m2) 588 (534–689) 661 (548–770) 0.042
EVLWimax (mL/kg) 19 (15–24) 23 (18–26) 0.001
PVPImax 3.8 (3.3–4.7) 4.5 (3.8–5.8) 0.003
GEFmin (%) 16 (12–19) 16 (11–19) 0.359
NEmax. (µg/kg/min) 0.40 (0.10–1.10) 0.76 (0.50–1.43) 0.007
Lactatemax (mmol/L) 2.1 (1.7–3.3) 2.5 (1.9–4.1) 0.097
Fluid balance (mL/day) 809 (35–1286) 1206 (648–2046) 0.004
  1. Bold font indicates statistical significance
  2. Values are expressed as median (interquartile range) or n (%)
  3. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, BMI body mass index, CI cardiac index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Crs respiratory system compliance, CRP C-reactive protein, DP driving pressure, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, EVLWi extravascular lung water indexed for ideal body weight, GEDVi global end-diastolic volume indexed for body surface, GEF global ejection fraction, ICU intensive care unit, MV mechanical ventilation, NE Norepinephrine, NMBA neuromuscular blocking agent, PaO2/FiO2 ratio of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen over inspired fraction in oxygen, PBW predicted body weight, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, PVPI pulmonary vascular permeability index, SAPS simplified acute physiologic score, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, TPTD transpulmonary thermodilution, TV tidal volume