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Table 1 Comparison of demographic characteristics of COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome

From: COVID-19 ARDS is characterized by higher extravascular lung water than non-COVID-19 ARDS: the PiCCOVID study

Variables COVID-19 (N = 60) Non-COVID-19 (N = 60) p value
Age (years) 64 (54–72) 62 (55–73) 0.967
Male (n) 46 (77) 34 (57) 0.033
BMI (kg/m2) 29.2 (26.3–33.2) 26.0 (21.8–32.0) 0.010
SAPS II score 40 (32–49) 55 (46–66)  < 0.001
SOFA total 6 (3–9) 9 (7–11) 0.001
SOFA respiration 2 (2–3) 3 (3–4) 0.015
SOFA hepatic 0 (0–0) 0 (0–1) 0.030
SOFA cardiovascular 2 (0–4) 4 (0–4) 0.036
SOFA coagulation 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 0.673
SOFA central nervous system 0 (0–0) 0 (0–1) 0.002
SOFA renal 0 (0–2) 1 (0–2) 0.094
Medical history    
Hypertension (n) 29 (48) 24 (40) 0.462
Diabetes mellitus (n) 24 (40) 16 (27) 0.175
COPD/asthma (n) 8 (13) 6 (10) 0.776
Chronic kidney disease (n) 10 (17) 7 (12) 0.601
Immunodepression (n) 13 (22) 31 (52) 0.001
Smoking (n) 8 (13) 25 (42) 0.001
Alcohol abuse (n) 6 (10) 19 (32) 0.007
Adjunctive therapies    
Prone position (n) 50 (83) 39 (65) 0.037
Sessions (n) 4 (1–7) 1 (0–2)  < 0.001
NMBA (n) 45 (75) 43 (72) 0.837
Corticosteroids for septic shock* (n) 11 (18) 47 (78)  < 0.001
Corticosteroids for COVID-19** 18 (30) 0 (0)  < 0.001
Time between corticoids start and first thermodilution 2 (1–4)*** 1 (1–3.5)**** 0.628
Inhaled nitric oxide (n) 6 (10) 4 (7) 0.741
ECMO (n) 17 (28) 7 (12) 0.040
Renal replacement therapy (n) 13 (22) 26 (43) 0.019
HFNC (n) 31 (52) 14 (23) 0.003
Duration of HFNC before MV (days) 3 (2–4) 1.5 (1–2) 0.032
NIV (n) 3 (5) 7 (12) 0.322
Duration of NIV before MV (days) 1(-) 1 (0.6–2.5) 0.555
Time from MV to TPTD (days) 1 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 0.008
ICU length of stay (days) 15 (8–24) 17 (9–26) 0.440
Duration of MV (days) 13 (6–22) 15 (6–23) 0.532
MV free days (days) 0 (0–3) 0 (0–8) 0.386
  1. Bold font indicates statistical significance
  2. Values are expressed as median (interquartile range) or n (%)
  3. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, HFNC high-flow nasal canula, ICU intensive care unit, MV mechanical ventilation, NIV noninvasive ventilation, NMBA neuromuscular blocking agent, SAPS simplified acute physiologic score, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, TPTD transpulmonary thermodilution
  4. * Hydrocortisone 200 mg/d; ** dexamethasone 6 mg/d, equivalent to hydrocortisone 160 mg/d; *** reported for the 18 patients who received corticosteroids before the set-up of the thermodilution device. **** reported for the 4 patients who received corticosteroids before the set-up of the thermodilution device