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Table 1 Baseline characteristics, biological and radiological findings at the admission and clinical outcomes of the patients

From: A high blood endocan profile during COVID-19 distinguishes moderate from severe acute respiratory distress syndrome

  All (n = 74) Non-ARDS (n = 37) ARDS (n = 37) ARDS vs non-ARDS Mild or moderate ARDS (n = 12) Severe ARDS (n = 25) Non-ARDS vs mild/moderate vs severe ARDS
Male sex, n (%) 59 (80%)
(n = 74)
30 (81%)
(n = 37)
29 (78%)  > 0.9999 9 (75%) 20 (80%) 0.9008
Age, median [IQR] (years) 64 [55–71]
(n = 74)
65 [51–73]
(n = 37)
62 [56–70] 0.8486 63 [56–76] 62 [55–68] 0.6131
BMI (kg/m2) 26.9 [24.0–31.0]
(n = 53)
26.5 [23.7–30.6]
(n = 30)
27.3 [24.2–31.0]
(n = 23)
0.4355 24.2 [23.4–32.7]
(n = 7)
27.7 [25.4–30.6]
(n = 16)
0.5424
Comorbidities        
Hypertension n (%) 36 (49%)
(n = 74)
19 (63%) 17 (46%) 0.8163 5 (42%) 12 (48%) 0.8408
Diabetes n (%) 31 (42%)
(n = 74)
14 (47%) 17 (46%) 0.6378 7 (58%) 10 (40%) 0.4450
Biological and radiological parameters at admission
CRP (mg/L)
N < 5 mg/L
155 [109–217]
(n = 70)
141 [88–187]
(n = 34)
176 [133–270]
(n = 36)
0.0122 178 [125–301]
(n = 12)
175 [133–267]
(n = 24)
0.0447
Creatinine (µmol/L)
N 49–90 (F); 64–104 (M) µmol/L
95 [70–131]
(n = 74)
100 [74–132]
(n = 37)
93 [67–141]
(n = 37)
0.4794 98 [65–127]
(n = 12)
93 [68–165]
(n = 25)
0.7714
AST (UI/L)
N 5–34 UI/L
63 [42–88]
(n = 70)
57 [40–84]
(n = 36)
72 [43–98]
(n = 34)
0.1550 65 [39–111]
(n = 10)
77 [45–90]
(n = 24)
0.3262
ALT (UI/L)
N < 55 UI/L
32 [21–52]
(n = 70)
28 [21–50]
(n = 36)
34 [23–53]
(n = 34)
0.4846 40 [12–53]
(n = 10)
34 [23–60]
(n = 24)
0.8455
Ferritin (µg/L)
N 5–204 (F); 22–275 (M) µg/L
1522 [770–2688]
(n = 51)
1183 [574–2291]
(n = 24)
1602 [1068–2704]
(n = 27)
0.1773 1252 [599–2531]
(n = 8)
2064 [1104–4130]
(n = 19)
0.1966
Platelets (109/L)
N 150–450 109/L
189 [143–244]
(n = 73)
186 [143–244]
(n = 37)
191 [142–252]
(n = 36)
0.8242 205 [152–268]
(n = 12)
182 [130–229]
(n = 24)
0.6761
PNN (109/L)
N 1.5–7.5 109/L
6.4 [4.3–8.8]
(n = 73)
6.1[4.1–7.6]
(n = 37)
7.0 [4.5–9.0]
(n = 36)
0.0750 8.1 [4.4–9.0]
(n = 12)
7.0 [4.5–9.5]
(n = 24)
0.1857
VWF antigen (%)
N 50–150%
429 [331–498]
(n = 64)
347 [299–509]
(n = 35)
449 [368–494]
(n = 29)
0.1648 476 [403–546]
(n = 10)
446 [331–484]
(n = 19)
0.2497
Fibrinogen (g/L)
N 1.5–3.5 g/L
6.10 [4.15–6.82]
(n = 52)
5.14 [4.03–6.46]
(n = 28)
6.32 [4.37–7.13]
(n = 24)
0.1056 6.40 [6.14–7.11]
(n = 8)
6.18 [4.24–7.13]
(n = 16)
0.2153
D-dimers (mg/L)
N < 0.500 mg/L
1.079 [0.538–3.607]
(n = 61)
0.771 [0.535–1.374]
(n = 31)
1.843 [0.579–7.134]
(n = 30)
0.0472 1.492 [0.569–3.228]
(n = 10)
1.843 [0.586–17.64]
(n = 20)
0.1207
Initial CT findings (score)* 4 [3–4]
(n = 39)
3 [2–4]
(n = 22)
4 [4–5]
(n = 17)
0.0016 4 [4–5]
(n = 9)
4 [4–5]
(n = 6)
0.0171
Clinical outcomes
Time from illness onset to hospital admission (days) 8 [6–12]
(n = 69)
9 [7–12]
(n = 34)
8 [5–12]
(n = 37)
0.7217 8 [4–10]
(n = 11)
8 [5–12]
(n = 24)
0.5818
Time from illness onset to occurrence of ARDS 10 [8–14]
(n = 32)
8 [5–14]
(n = 9)
11 [8–15]
(n = 23)
0.1711
Hospital stay (days) 16 [10–29]
(n = 73)
12 [7–17]
(n = 36)
25 [14–38]
(n = 35)
 < 0.0001 23 [14–30]
(n = 12)
27 [14–41]
(n = 25)
0.0004
Mortality n (%) 18 (24%)
(n = 74)
2 (5%)
(n = 37)
16 (43%)
(n = 37)
0.0001 3 (25%)
(n = 12)
13 (52%) 0.0002
  1. *Semiquantitative CT score was calculated based on the extent of lung parenchyma involvement (1: 0–10%; 2: 11–25%; 3: 26–50%; 4: 51–75%; 5:  > 75%)
  2. In univariate analysis, we determined the differences in median using unpaired t test (Mann–Whitney U test) for continuous variable and differences in proportions were determined using the Chi-square test or Fischer exact test, as appropriate. Concentrations of endocan were compared between groups (control, non-ARDS, mild/moderate ARDS and severe ARDS) using the Kruskal–Wallis test followed by Dunn’s posttest. Bold font indicates statistical significance
  3. AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, PNN polynuclear neutrophils, VWF von Willebrand factor