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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of critically ill patients with COVID-19 at ICU admission

From: Longitudinal assessment of IFN-I activity and immune profile in critically ill COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

  All patients (n = 64) ARDS (n = 40) No ARDS (n = 24) p value
Demographics
 Age 65 [52–72] 66 [57–72] 55 [43–72] 0.0738
 Gender 51 (80%) 36 (90%) 15 (63%) 0.0116
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 28 [26–32] 29 [26–34] 28 [25–30] 0.2124
 Body mass index > 30 kg/m2 23 (36%) 17 (43%) 6 (25%) 0.1874
Comorbidities
 Diabetes 16 (25%) 11 (25%) 5 (21%) 0.7693
 Comorbidities 0.2979
  0 36 (56%) 20 (50%) 16 (67%)  
  ≥ 1 28 (44%) 20 (50%) 8 (33%)  
 Charlson score 0 [0–2] 1 [0–2] 0 [0–1] 0.0002
Admission symptoms
 Delay between first symptoms (Days) 7 [4–11] 7 [4–10] 8.5 [7–11] 0.2055
 Fever 52 (81%) 34 (85%) 18 (75%) 0.3414
 Cough 42 (66%) 24 (60%) 18 (75%) 0.2814
 Dyspnea 40 (63%) 28 (70%) 12 (50%) 0.1208
 Diarrhea 18 (28%) 10 (25%) 8 (33%) 0.5691
 Diffuse pain 13 (20%) 7 (18%) 6 (25%) 0.5300
 Altered general status 44 (69%) 24 (60%) 20 (83%) 0.0584
 Other 28 (44%) 16 (40%) 12 (50%)  
Severity scores
 SOFA score 4 [2–8] 8 [4–9] 2 [2, 3] < 0.0001
 SAPS II score 34 [26–45] 40 [32–54] 27 [21–33] < 0.0001
 PaO2/FiO2 at admission 145 [92–191] 132 [95–166] 230 [83–298] 0.0152
Antiviral therapy
 Hydroxychloroquine 35 (55%) 20 (50%) 15 (63%) 0.4381
 Lopinavir/ritonavir 5 (8%) 3 (8%) 2 (8%) > 0.9999
 Lopinavir/ritonavir + interferonβ 5 (8%) 4 (10%) 1 (4%) > 0.9999
 Remdesivir 1 (2%) 1 (3%) 0 (0%) 0.5238
Organ support
 Mechanical ventilation 63 (98%) 40 (100%) 23 (96%) 0.3750
 Noninvasive ventilation 23 (36%) 0 (0%) 23 (100%)  < 0.0001
 Invasive ventilation 40 (63%) 40 (100%) 0 (0%)  < 0.0001
 Vasoactive drugs 24 (38%) 24 (60%) 0 (0%)  < 0.0001
 Renal replacement therapy 15 (23%) 15 (38%) 0 (0%) 0.0004
Follow-up
 Days in ICU 10 [4–30] 21 [11–58] 4 [2–7] 0.003
 Days in hospital 21 [11–56] 33 [19–71] 13 [8–21] < 0.0001
 Hospital mortality 19 (30%) 19 (48%) 0 (0%) < 0.0001
 Day-28 mortality 14 (22%) 14 (35%) 0 (0%) < 0.0001
 Day-90 mortality 19 (30%) 19 (48%) 0 (0%) < 0.0001
 Secondary infections 32 (50%) 30 (75%) 2 (8%) < 0.0001
  1. The results are shown as medians and interquartile ranges [Q1–Q3] for continuous variables or numbers and percentage for categorical variables. Patients were separated into two groups based on presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) according to Berlin definition during the first 72 h after admission. Sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) and simplified acute physiology score II (SAPS II) scores were calculated during the first 24 h after intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Data were compared using nonparametric Mann–Whitney test for continuous variables or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables
  2. p values inferior to 0.05 are highlighted in bold