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Table 1 Patients' characteristics at admission in ICU and outcome

From: Prone position in intubated, mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19: a multi-centric study of more than 1000 patients

Variables Overall (n = 1057) Non-proned (n = 409, 39%) Proned (n = 648, 61%) p value
Males, no. (%) 831 (79) 317 (78) 514 (79) 0.483
Age (years) 63 (55–69) 63 (55–69) 63 (55–69) 0.773
BMI (kg/m2) 28 (25–31) 27 (25–31) 28 (25–31) 0.023
SOFA score 4 (3–5) 4 (3–4) 4 (3–5)  < 0.001
APACHE II score 10 (7–13) 9 (7–13) 10 (8–13) 0.013
Intubated, no. (%)a 892 (84) 351 (86) 541 (84) 0.309
Respiratory Rate (breaths/min)b 20 (18–25) 20 (16–24) 20 (18–25)  < 0.001
FiO2 (%)b 70 (60–90) 60 (50–80) 80 (60–90)  < 0.001
PEEP (cmH2O)b 12 (10–14) 12 (10–14) 12 (10–14)  < 0.001
PaO2/FIO2 ratiob 120 (88–173) 145 (107–197) 108 (81–148)  < 0.001
ARDS severity, no. (%)b
 Mild 128 (15) 76 (23) 52 (10)  < 0.001
 Moderate 426 (50) 183 (56) 243 (46)
 Severe 298 (35) 69 (21) 229 (44)
Tidal volume/PBW (mL/kg)b 7.0 (6.3–7.8) 7.1 (6.3–7.9) 7.0 (6.2–7.8) 0.140
Plateau pressure (cmH2O)b 24 (22–27) 24 (21–26) 25 (22–28)  < 0.001
Driving pressure (cmH2O)b 12 (9–14) 12 (9–13) 12 (9–14) 0.120
Respiratory system compliance (mL/cmH2O)b 40 (33–50) 42 (35–50) 38 (32–50) 0.035
pH 7.39 (7.32–7.46) 7.40 (7.33–7.46) 7.39 (7.31–7.45) 0.220
PaO2 (mmHg) 80 (67–101) 86 (70–108) 77 (65–97)  < 0.001
PaCO2 (mmHg) 43 (36–52) 43 (37–51) 43 (36–53) 0.710
Ventilatory ratiob 1.7 (1.4–2.2) 1.7 (1.3–2.1) 1.8 (1.4–2.2) 0.061
LDH (units/L) 479 (359–640) 424 (324–593) 507 (392–667)  < 0.001
D-dimer (ng/mL) 1492 (608–4602) 1190 (520–3470) 1730 (690–6576) 0.001
Ferritine (ng/mL) 1408 (811–2399) 1214 (668–1903) 1552 (1031–2491) 0.003
ICU mortality, no. (%) 374 (36) 112 (28) 262 (41)  < 0.001
Hospital mortality, no. (%) 405 (41) 127 (33) 278 (45)  < 0.001
ICU LOS (days) 15 (9–25) 12 (7–21) 16 (11–28)  < 0.001
Hospital LOS (days) 29 (17–46) 26 (16–40) 30 (17–49) 0.008
Mechanical ventilation (days) 14 (8–26) 10 (6–19) 16 (10–30)  < 0.001
  1. Data are expressed either as median [interquartile range] or as frequency (percentage)
  2. BMI = Body Mass Index; SOFA = Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; APACHE II = Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II; FiO2 = Inspired fraction of oxygen; PEEP = Positive End-Expiratory Pressure; PBW: Predicted Body Weight; PaO2: partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood; PaCO2: partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood; LDH: lactate dehydrogenase; LOS = Length of stay
  3. aPatients intubated same day of ICU admission
  4. bValues refer to patients intubated on the same day of ICU admission