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Table 1 Ventilator settings, neuromonitoring values, and hemodynamic data at time points T0 (before rescue therapy) and T1 (after rescue therapy)

From: Early effects of ventilatory rescue therapies on systemic and cerebral oxygenation in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a prospective observational study

Parameter All (N = 45) RM (N = 22)RM (N = 22) Prone position (N = 10)
T0 T1 p value T0 T1 p value T0 T1 p value
Primary outcome
rSO2 (%) 53 [51–55] 52 [49–59] 0.692 52 [51–54] 48.5 [47–50]  < 0.0001* 53 [52–54] 59.5 [59–64] 0.005*
PaO2 /FiO2 66 [62–72] 71 [67–74] 0.002* 66 [62–72] 67.5 [63–72] 0.189 62 [56–71] 81.5 [76–87] 0.005*
SpO2 (%) 88 [87–90] 91 [89–92]  < 0.0001* 88 [87–89] 89 [88–91] 0.072 87 [86–88] 93 [89–96] 0.005*
Ventilator settings
PEEP (cmH2O) 12 [11–13] 12 [11–13] 0.169 12 [11–13] 12 [10–13] 0.157 12 [11–13] 12 [10–13] 0.317
Pplat (cmH2O) 29 [28–30] 29 [28–30] 0.698 29 [28–30] 29 [28–30] 1.000 29 [28–30] 29 [28–30] 1.000
VT/PBW (mL/Kg) 5.7 [5.5–6.2] 5.9 [4.9–6.9] 0.086 6.7 [6–7.1] 6.3 [5.4–6.6] 0.001* 5.4 [5.1–6.1] 6.3 [6–7.1] 0.005*
RR (n/min) 26 [24.5–27.5] 26 [24.5–28] 0.026* 25 [24–26] 25 [24–26] 0.109 27.5 [26–28] 27.5 [26–28] 1.000
Crs (mL/cmH2O) 20.1 [18.2–24.7] 19.8 [17.8–23.5] 0.615 21.6 [19.4–25.2] 20.1 [19.6–24.5] 0.200 14.9 [13.4–18.6] 23.4 [19.5–26.4] 0.005*
Neuromonitoring
ΔcHbi 4.3 [3–6] 4.7 [2.6–7.7] 0.157 5 [3.7–6.1] 3.2 [2.5–4.6]  < 0.0001* 4.5 [2.4–6.5] 10.2 [8.9–12.4] 0.005*
ΔO2Hbi 3.2 [2.7–4.2] 2.1 [1.4–5.3] 0.991 3.7 [2.9–4.4] 1.7 [1.3–2.1]  < 0.0001* 3.5 [2.1–4.6] 8 [6.3–8.8] 0.005*
ΔHHbi 0.9 [0.3–1.8] 2.1 [1.2–2.8]  < 0.0001* 1.1 [0.8–1.8] 1.3 [1.1–2.2] 0.001* 1 [0.2–1.9] 2.3 [2.1–3.9] 0.005*
nICP (mmHg) 17 [15.5–19] 21 [17–26]  < 0.0001* 17.5 [15–19] 26 [24–28]  < 0.0001* 16 [15–18] 18 [16–20] 0.016*
nCPP (mmHg) 55 [51–60] 50 [39–59] 0.001* 54 [50–62] 39 [35–44]  < 0.0001* 55.5 [53–58] 60.5 [59–63] 0.011*
ΔSpO2rSO2 (%) 36 [37–37 38 [33–41] 0.001* 36 [35–37] 41 [38–43]  < 0.0001* 33.5 [32–35] 31.5 [30–33.5] 0.134
Other arterial blood gas values
pHa 7.37 [7.33–7.41] 7.38 [7.35–7.41] 0.017* 7.38 [7.34–7.41] 7.38 [7.35–7.42] 0.466 7.37 [7.34–7.41] 7.41 [7.38–7.43] 0.024*
PaCO2 (mmHg) 54 [48–64] 53 [47–63]  < 0.0001* 51 [46–56] 50 [45–56] 0.108 53.5 [47–71] 53.3 [47–69] 0.021*
Hemodynamics
Hb (mg/dL) 8.5 [8.1–8.8] 8.3 [8.1–8.7] 0.119 8.6 [8.2–8.8] 8.4 [8.3–8.8] 0.343 8.5 [8.1–8.9] 8.3 [8.1–8.7] 0.321
MAP (mmHg) 72 [68–76.5] 71 [65–76] 0.013* 71.5 [67–76] 64 [59–68]  < 0.0001* 72.5 [68–75] 78.5 [71–84] 0.005*
HR (n/min) 75 [65–88.5] 77 [68–94] 0.015* 77.5 [68–89] 79 [69–91] 0.009* 77 [75–85] 78 [72–83] 0.878
Parameter iNO (N = 9) ECCO2R (N = 4)
T0 T1 p value T0 T1 p value
Primary outcome
rSO2 (%) 53 [51–56] 57 [55–59] 0.007* 59 [55.5–64.5] 56 [52.5–62] 0.002*
PaO2 /FiO2 65 [67–73] 72 [67–73] 0.015* 75 [74.5–78.5] 63.5 [60–69.5] 0.009*
SpO2 (%) 89 [88–90] 92 [91–93] 0.016* 93 [91.5–94] 89.5 [87.5–91] 0.01*
Ventilator settings
PEEP (cmH2O) 12 [11–14] 12 [10–13] 0.025* 12 [1113] 10.5 [10–11] 0.103
Pplat (cmH2O) 29 [28–29] 29 [28–29] 1.000 29.5 [28–30.5] 29.5 [28–30.5] 0.543
VT/PBW (mL/Kg) 5.7 [5.2–7.4] 5.9 [5.3–7.2] 0.441 5.7 [3–6.7] 4.3 [3.8–6] 0.068
RR (n/min) 25 [20–26] 26 [22–26] 0.102 29 [27–30] 29 [27–30] 0.225
Crs (mL/cmH2O) 20.8 [19.3–26.5] 16.7 [19.6– 26.6] 0.086 17 [15.9–18.9] 13.5 [11.3–15.7] 0.465
Neuromonitoring
ΔcHbi 3.1 [3–4.3] 7.1 [7–8.1] 0.008* 3.6 [2.7–4.2] 1.3 [0.7–1.9] 0.002*
ΔO2Hbi 2.8 [2.6–3.7] 4.7 [4.1–5.2] 0.008* 3 [2.3–3.4] 0.6 [0.2–1.2] 0.002*
ΔHHbi 0.4 [0.3–1.2] 2.8 [1.9–2.9] 0.008* 0.6 [0.3–0.8] 0.7 [0.4–0.8] 0.182
nICP (mmHg) 18 [17–19] 17 [16–18] 0.033* 22.5 [19–26] 18.5 [15–23] 0.006*
nCPP (mmHg) 59 [54–60] 59 [53–60] 0.395 50.5 [50–52] 53 [52–54.5] 0.059
ΔSpO2rSO2 (%) 36 [34–37] 35 [33––37] 0.320 34 [29.5–36] 33.5 [29–35] 0.058
Other arterial blood gas values
pHa 7.36 [7.35–7.38] 7.38 [7.36–7.39] 0.031* 7.21 [7.19–7.26] 7.36 [7.34–7.37] 0.008*
PaCO2 (mmHg) 54 [48–68] 55[48–67] 0.058 100 [99–100] 72 [70–73]  < 0.0001*
Hemodynamics
Hb (mg/dL) 8.1 [7.9–8.3] 8.3 [7.7–8.3] 0.432 8.1 [7.8–8.5] 8.2 [7.9–8.5] 0.314
MAP (mmHg) 76 [71–76] 75 [70–77] 0.248 73 [69–78] 71.5 [67–77.5] 0.141
HR (n/min) 69 [64–75] 67 [65–89] 0.917 65.5 [65–71.5] 73 [69.5–78] 0.049*
  1. Values are presented as median and Interquartile range if not otherwise specified
  2. ECCO2R extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal, RM recruitment maneuvers, iNO inhaled nitric oxide, PaO2 partial pressure of oxygen, FiO2 inspired fraction of oxygen ratio, SpO2 oxygen saturation, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, Pplat plateau pressure, VT tidal volume, PBW predicted body weight, RR respiratory rate, Crs respiratory system compliance, rSO2 cerebral oxygenation saturation, nICP noninvasive intracranial pressure, nCPP noninvasive cerebral perfusion pressure
  3. DeltaO2Hbi (ΔO2Hbi), change in the oxygenated component of hemoglobin (Hb); delta HHbi (ΔHHbi), change in the deoxygenated component of Hb; delta cHbi (ΔcHbi), sum of the values of ΔO2Hbi; ΔcHbi = ΔHHbi + ΔO2Hbi; ΔSpO2–rSO2, difference between the value of SpO2 and rSO2; N number