Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the matched sample of adult patients with COVID-19 related acute respiratory failure

From: High-flow nasal oxygen in patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory failure

Covariate Early intubation (N = 61) HFNO (N = 61) SMD
Demographic characteristics    
Age, years—mean (SD) 61 (11) 62 (11) 0.06
Female gender, n (%) 36 (48) 27 (40) 0.14
BMI, kg/m2 – mean (SD) 28.8 (4.3) 28.8 (5.5) 0.01
Time to ICU admission, days – median [IQR] 2 [1–4] 2 [1–4] 0.11
Baseline comorbid disease    
Number of comorbidities – median [IQR] 1 [0–1] 1 [0–2] 0.00
Immunosupression, (n, %) 2 (3.3) 4 (6.6) 0.15
Active cancer, (n, %) 0 (0) 6 (9.8) 0.47
Initial severity of disease    
SOFA score—median [IQR] 5 [3–7] 4 [4–7] 0.00
Glasgow coma score—median [IQR] 15 [15] 15 [15] 0.41
APACHE II score—median [IQR] 11 [9–14] 10 [9–113] 0.11
PaO2:FiO2 ratio—mean (SD) 117 (51) 121 (49) 0.09
Respiratory rate, rpm—mean (SD) 25 (5) 25 (5) 0.04
Oxygen saturation, %—mean (SD) 88 (7) 89 (6) 0.09
ROX index—median [IQR] 4.4 [3.4–6.4] 5 [4–6.2] 0.25
PaCO2, mmHg—mean (SD) 37 (8) 38 (12) 0.02
Gas flow, L/min—mean (SD) 55 (12)
FiO2, %—mean (SD) 79 (18) 72 (16) 0.45
Heart rate (bpm)—mean (SD) 81 (18) 82 (15) 0.03
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)—mean (SD) 128 (21) 124 (18) 0.21
Use of steroids, n (%) 47 (77) 45 (73.8) 0.08
Laboratory values    
pH—mean (SD) 7.4 (0.1) 7.44 (0.06) 0.66
Creatinine, mg/dL—mean (SD) 1.0 (0.8) 1.0 (0.7) 0.01
Bilirrubin, mg/dL—mean (SD) 0.7 (0.5) 0.7 (0.3) 0.01
Lactate, mmol/L—mean (SD) 0.3 (0.6) 0.4 (0.7) 0.13
D-dimer, U/L—mean (SD) 4025 (11,944) 2235 (4724) 0.19
Leucocyte count, 10^9/L—mean (SD) 8.1 (3.6) 8.3 (4.8) 0.04
Lymphocyte count, 10^9/L—mean (SD) 0.7 (1.0) 0.7 (0.5) 0.09
Platelet count, 10^12/L—mean (SD) 223 (88) 241 (126) 0.16
  1. HFNO: high-flow nasal oxygen; IQR: interquartile range; SD: standard deviation; SMD: standardized mean difference; PaCO2: arterial pressure of carbon dioxide; FiO2: inspired oxygen fraction; ROX: ratio of oxygen saturation to FiO2, divided by respiratory rate: (Saturation/FiO2)/Respiratory rate. APACHE: Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation; SOFA: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment