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Table 1 Some of the aspects we have done well and some we could have done better

From: COVID-19: What we’ve done well and what we could or should have done better—the 4 Ps

  Did well Could have done better
Preparation Using other areas of the hospital to expand ICU capacity
Distributing resources
Increasing resources when still in pre-epidemic period
Providing more psychological support in some centers
Progress Understanding the pathophysiology
Improving general, especially respiratory, management
Discovering benefit from corticosteroid administration
Increasing international collaboration
Increasing definitive RCTs on therapeutic interventions in critically ill patients
Decreasing enthusiasm for unproven and theoretical treatments
Increasing research on susceptibility and host response factors
Personalization Rapidly deciphering individual responses and patterns of disease Individualizing ARDS management
Paying more attention to tissue perfusion
Making greater use of biomarkers to guide therapy
Prioritization Developing guidelines Discussing ethical uncertainties and optimizing ICU admissions in some centers
Coordinating resources across centers