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Table 1 Baseline participants characteristicsa

From: Bedside POCUS during ward emergencies is associated with improved diagnosis and outcome: an observational, prospective, controlled study

Variables Control group n = 82 POCUS group n = 83 P value
Men 48 (59) 55 (66) 0.31
Age, median [IQR] years 67 [57–77] 70 [59–81] 0.49
Indication for placing the call to the RRTs    
Respiratory 56 (68) 61 (74) 0.46
Circulatory 26 (32) 22 (26)  
Indication for hospital admission    
Cardiac 10 (12) 3 (4) 0.27
Respiratory 30 (37) 23 (28)  
Neurologic 2 (2) 7 (9)  
Digestive 8 (10) 8 (10)  
Obstetrical 1 (1,5) 0  
Infectious 2 (2,5) 2 (2)  
General 4 (5) 4 (5)  
Surgery 24 (29) 28 (34)  
Urologic 0 2 (2)  
Vascular 1 (1) 3 (4)  
Traumatic 0 3 (4)  
BMI (> 25), kg/m2    
  41 (50) 39 (47) 0.70
ASA score    
I-II 23 (28) 23 (28) 0.99
III 47 (57) 48 (58)  
IV–V 12 (15) 12 (14)  
SAPS IIb, median [IQR]    
  46 [34–57] 40 [33–52] 0.51
Comorbidities    
Allergy 9 (11) 8 (10) 0.78
Coronary disease 22 (27) 23 (28) 0.89
Heart failure 19 (23) 27 (32) 0.18
Chronic kidney disease 11 (13) 19 (22) 0.16
Cancer 28 (34) 26 (31) 0.70
Immunodepression 10 (12) 13 (15) 0.52
Dementia 5 (6) 3 (4) 0.49
Stroke 8 (9,8) 9 (11) 0.82
Epilepsy 5 (6) 1 (1) 0.12
Diabetes 13 (16) 21 (25) 0.13
Liver disease 6 (7) 6 (7) 0.98
COPD 36 (44) 30 (36) 0.31
Habitual smoker 42 (51) 34 (41) 0.19
Definitive diagnosisc    
Exacerbation of asthma 3 (5) 3 (5) 0.60
Septic shock 14 (17)   14 (17)
Pneumonia 18 (22) 7 (8)  
Cardiogenic edema 10 (12) 13 (16)  
Hemorrhagic shock 7 (8) 4 (5)  
Atelectasis 1 (1) 4 (5)  
Exacerbation of COPD 5 (6) 6 (7)  
Pneumothorax 1 (1) 1 (1)  
Pleural effusion 3 (5) 4 (5)  
Acute interstitial lung disease (non-cardiogenic edema) 4 (5) 7 (8)  
Pulmonary embolism 2 (2) 2 (2)  
Cardiogenic shock 2 (2) 2 (2)  
Hypovolemic shock 1 (1) 1 (1)  
Tamponade 1 (1) 2 (2)  
Exacerbation of COPD/cardiogenic edema 0 1 (1)  
Pneumonia/cardiogenic edema 0 1 (1)  
Pneumonia/acute interstitial lung disease (non-cardiogenic edema) 1 (1) 3 (5)  
Exacerbation of COPD/pneumothorax 2 (2) 0  
Normal 0 2 (2)  
Other† 7 (9) 6 (8)  
Urine volume 24 h before inclusion (ml/day)    
 < 200 6 (7) 4 (5) 0.58
 < 500 29 (35) 24 (29)  
 > 500 37 (45) 40 (48)  
 > 1000 10 (12) 15 (18)  
Mottlingd 22 (27) 10 (12) 0.02
Respiratory distress syndrome 49 (60) 54 (65) 0.48
Abnormal chest auscultatione 62 (76) 59 (71) 0.51
Thorax X-ray < 24 h 35 (42) 38 (46) 0.69
MAP, median [IQR], mmHg 82 [70–100] 93 [72–113] 0.02
Heart rate, median [IQR], bpm* 100 [80–120] 107 [85–130] 0.46
Serum lactate median [IQR], mmol/l 2 [1–3] 2 [1–3] 0.95
Hemoglobin, median [IQR], g/dl 11 [9–13] 11 [9–12] 0.18
Serum creatinine, median [IQR],mmol/L 79 [52–125] 82 [62 -132] 0.51
Total bilirubin, median [IQR] umol/l 10 [8–16] 10 [8–16] 0.91
Serum potassium, median [IQR], mmol/L 4 [4, 5] 4 [4, 5] 0.41
Volemic expansion at the bedside, median [IQR], ml/kg 3 [0–10] 4 [0 -12] 0.73
Respiratory rate, median [IQR] bpm** 27 [20–35] 25 [20–35] 0.51
SpO2, median [IQR], % 92 [89–96] 94 [90–97] 0.16
PaO2/FiO2 ratio, median [IQR] 186 [121–284] 203 [136–355] 0.28
Glasgow score, median [IQR] 15 [2–15] 15 [14, 15] 0.08
BNP, median [IQR] pg/ml 306 [129–584] 188 [62–833] 0.61
Oxygen rate flow, median [IQR], L/min 12 [5–15] 6 [2–15] 0.003
Orientation after inclusion    
Immediate ICU 59 (72) 49 (55) 0.15
Operative room 5 (6) 7 (8)  
Emergency room 4 (5) 9 (12)  
Ward 14 (17) 21 (25)  
  1. BMI, body mass index; ASA, Score of American Society of Anesthesiologists; SAPS II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; MAP, median arterial pressure; SpO2, pulse oximetry; PaO2/FiO2 ratio, ratio of arterial oxygen partial to fractional inspired oxygen; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; bpm*: beats per minute; bpm**: breaths per minute; IQR, interquartile range; RRT, rapid response team
  2. aData are expressed as No (%) of participants unless otherwise indicated. At the bedside
  3. bThe SAPS II ranges from 0 to 163, with higher scores indicating higher risk of mortality. A patient with a score of 40 has an estimated mortality risk of 30%
  4. cDiagnosis established after medical files and supplementary workup
  5. dOnly presence or absence of mottlings
  6. eAbnormal was defined like pathological auscultation
  7. Panic attack (1), anaphylaxia (2), bronchospasm (1), hemoptysis (1), intraalveolar hemorrhage (1), laryngeal dyspnea (1), morphine surdosage (1), pulmonary hypertension crisis (1), tracheal decannulation (1), neurological failure (1) and valve thrombosis (1)
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