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Table 1 Clinical and demographic features of reported populations

From: Ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients with COVID-19

Parameter COVID-19 (n = 81) Non-COVID-19 (n = 144) P value
Median age (IQR) 62 (50–70) 62 (49–72) 0.986
Sex (n (%) female) 25 (31%) 58 (40%) 0.254
Hypertension 27 (33%) 47 (33%) 0.96
Diabetes 18 (22%) 34 (24%) 0.72
Obesity 30 (37%) 34 (24%) 0.04
Chronic kidney disease 10 (12%) 13 (9%) 0.47
Chronic lung disease 16 (20%) 34 (24%) 0.38
Immunocompromised* 12 (15%) 36 (25%) 0.08
Corticosteroid use in ICU 13 (16%) 23 (16%) 0.99
Median APACHE II (IQR) 15 (11–19) 16 (12–20) 0.06
% With ARDS on ICU admission 63 (78%) 21 (15%)  < 0.0001
% Ventilated prone 40 (49%) 1 (0.7%)  < 0.0001
Median P/F ratio in 24 h following admission 18 (13–28) 34 (24–37)  < 0.0001
Antibiotics in 24 h following admission 76 (94%) 126 (88%) 0.23
Median ICU length of stay (IQR) 15 (11–25) 9 (4–13)  < 0.0001
Median duration of ventilation (IQR) 14 (10–23) 5 (2–11)  < 0.0001
% Developing suspected VAP 64 (79%) 48 (33%)  < 0.0001
% Developing microbiologically confirmed VAP 39 (48%) 19 (13%)  < 0.0001
% of suspected VAPs investigated by bronchoscopy and lavage 30 (47%#) 23 (48%##) 0.94
ICU mortality 31 (38%) 30 (21%) 0.006
Median length of stay for patients dying in ICU (IQR) 13 (10–17) 9 (6–11) 0.0019
  1. P value by z-test for proportions and by Mann–Whitney U test for continuous variables
  2. *Immunocompromised patients were defined as having active haematological malignancy, neutropaenic malignancy, solid organ or bone marrow transplant and receipt of immunosuppressive medication including corticosteroids for > 1 week prior to hospital admission
  3. #4 cases not assessed by TAC due to lack of availability of laboratory capacity
  4. ##1 case not assessed by TAC due to lack of availability of laboratory capacity
  5. APACHE II, Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score; IQR, interquartile range