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Table 2 Comparison of outcomes by four different initial fluid resuscitation rate (ml/kg/min)

From: Effect of initial infusion rates of fluid resuscitation on outcomes in patients with septic shock: a historical cohort study

VariablesFluid replacement rate; ml/kg/min 
≥ 0.5, N = 2560.25–0.49, N = 1230.17–0.24, N = 88< 0.17, N = 585P value
Time to shock reversal; days    < .001
N23210373506 
 Median (Q1, Q3)1.6 (0.9, 3.3)1.4 (0.6, 3.2)2.0 (0.9, 4.6)2.4 (1.2, 5.1) 
 Median survival1.72 (1.52, 2.01)1.87 (1.32, 2.62)2.58 (2.02, 4.40)2.80 (2.57, 3.26).004§
 Adjusted hazard ratioa1.00 (ref)0.96 (0.76, 1.21)0.84 (0.65, 1.10)0.78 (0.66, 0.91) **.01
Lactate clearance; mg/dl    < .001
N2079762400 
 Median (Q1, Q3)0.5 (− 0.1, 1.3)0.4 (− 0.05, 1.2)0.6 (− 0.04, 1.2)0.2 (− 0.4, 0.8) 
 Adjusted mean estimate c0.00 (ref)0.05 (− 0.27, 0.38)0.13 (− 0.25, 0.52)− 0.45 (− 0.68, − 0.23)***< .001
MAP change in the first 3 h; mmHg    < .001
N25412079508 
 Median (Q1, Q3)4.3 (− 3.0, 11.5)4.0 (− 4.5, 11.5)− 0.5 (− 10.5, 7.0)0.5 (− 5.5, 7.0) 
 Adjusted mean estimatec0.00 (ref)− 1.14 (− 4.25, 1.96)− 3.55 (− 7.17, 0.07)− 2.93 (− 5.10, − 0.75)**.04
HR change in the first 3 h; bpm    .2
N25512082545 
 Median (Q1, Q3)− 2.0 (− 7.5, 2.5)− 2.3 (− 8.0, 4.3)− 2.5 (− 9.5, 0.5)− 1.5 (− 7.5, 3.5) 
 Adjusted mean estimatec0.00 (ref)0.50 (− 2.06, 3.07)− 1.41 (− 4.37, 1.54)1.63 (− 0.15, 3.41).08
Fluid balance at T3; ml/kg59 (45, 79)44 (35, 60)33 (31, 41)7 (1, 15)< .001
 Adjusted mean estimatec0.00 (ref)14.61 (10.63, 18.59)***28.73 (24.23, 33.22)***57.08 (54.34, 59.82)***< .001
MICU fluid balance; ml/kg76 (48, 136)71 (40, 125)66 (24, 146)50 (16, 110)< .001
 Adjusted mean estimatec0.00 (ref)− 10 (− 34, 14)− 6 (− 33, 21)13 (− 4, 29).1
Fluid infusion between T3 and MICU discharge; ml/kg107 (50, 264)124 (49, 223)158 (62, 381)168 (86, 345)< .001
 Adjusted mean estimatec0.00 (ref)− 54 (− 102, − 5)*37 (− 18, 91)59 (27, 90)***< .001
Duration between first vasopressor using and T0; hours    < .001
N23310275502 
 Median (Q1, Q3)2.0 (0.5, 4.7)2.3 (1.3, 3.9)3.7 (1.4, 6.7)7.0 (2.2, 17.7) 
 Adjusted mean estimatec0.00 (ref)− 3.8 (− 12.5, 5.0)− 2.0 (− 11.7, 7.8)10.3 (4.6, 15.9)***< .001
SOFA change (day 2–day 1)    < .001
N24011480561 
 Median (Q1, Q3)− 3 (− 5, − 1)−  2 (− 5, − 1)− 2 (− 3.5, − 0.5)− 2 (− 4, 0) 
 Adjusted mean estimatec0.00 (ref)− 0.09 (− 0.71, 0.53)0.85 (0.15, 1.55)*0.94 (0.52, 1.36)***< .001
Mechanical ventilation; N (%)134 (52%)68 (55%)55 (63%)383 (66%).002
 Adjusted odds ratiob1.00 (ref)1.04 (0.63, 1.75)1.56 (0.87, 2.83)1.91 (1.34, 2.73)***.001
Mechanical ventilation duration; days    .002
N1346855383 
 Median (Q1, Q3)3 (1, 7)2 (1, 6)5 (2, 9)4 (2, 8) 
 Adjusted mean estimatec0.00 (ref)− 14.95 (− 66.76, 36.87)43.67 (− 11.93, 99.27)45.07 (9.60, 80.54)*.01
Discharge alive from MICU238 (93%)112 (91%)81 (92%)481 (82%)< .001
 Median survival; days2.89 (2.64, 3.19)3.09 (2.42, 3.86)4.06 (3.12, 5.99)4.90 (4.51, 5.67)< .001§
 Adjusted hazard ratioa1.00 (ref)0.95 (0.75, 1.19)0.74 (0.57, 0.95)*0.58 (0.49, 0.68)***< .001
Discharge alive from hospital225 (88%)93 (76%)68 (77%)415 (71%)< .001
 Median survival; days10.09 (8.51, 11.80)12.51 (9.77, 15.03)16.81 (13.66, 21.01)17.69 (15.45, 19.96)< .001§
 Adjusted hazard ratioa1.00 (ref)0.84 (0.66, 1.08)0.58 (0.44, 0.76)***0.53 (0.45, 0.63)***< .001
MICU mortality; N (%)18 (7%)11 (9%)7 (8%)104 (18%)< .001
 Adjusted odds ratiob1.00 (ref)1.34 (0.59, 3.03)1.12 (0.44, 2.87)3.40 (1.95, 5.93)***< .001
Hospital mortality; N (%)31 (12%)30 (24%)20 (23%)170 (29%)< .001
 Adjusted odds ratiob1.00 (ref)2.53 (1.41, 4.52)**2.23 (1.17, 4.27)*3.51 (2.27, 5.44)***< .001
28-day mortality; N (%)41 (16%)32 (26%)21 (24%)199 (34%)< .001
 Adjusted odds ratiob1.00 (ref)1.97 (1.12, 3.45)*1.86 (0.99, 3.51)3.19 (2.13, 4.78)***< .001
  1. Numbers indicate N (%) and median (Q1, Q3) unless otherwise noted
  2. Unadjusted models contain just fluid resuscitation rate adjusted models are additionally adjusted for the effects of age, gender, white race, weight, CCI, APACHE III, and SOFA
  3. Compared to ≥ 0. 5 ml/kg/min group, *P value < 0.05, **P value < 0.01, ***P value < 0.001
  4. Chi-square
  5. Kruskal-Wallis
  6. §Log-rank test
  7. Type 3 Wald test
  8. aAnalyzed using proportional hazards regression models
  9. bAnalyzed using logistic regression models
  10. cAnalyzed using linear regression models