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Table 2 Reasons equations for predicting energy expenditure lead to inaccurate results compared to measured energy expenditure [16, 17]

From: Nutrition therapy in critical illness: a review of the literature for clinicians

Equation factorsPatient and system factors
• Sample size of the original equation
• The characteristics of the original development population (including age, body composition, and disease state)
• The population characteristics in which the equation is used
• The addition of commonly used ‘injury’ or ‘stress’ factors
• Using an adjusted body weight with the equation
• Individual patient heterogeneity in the metabolic response to critical illness
• Differing body composition (fat-free mass and fat mass)
• Changes in medical management over time in elements that impact metabolism (like surgery, pain, and sedation practices)