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Table 2 Details on study interventions and comparators

From: Systematic early versus late mobilization or standard early mobilization in mechanically ventilated adult ICU patients: systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Group Intervention description Time to first intervention Intervention frequency Intervention duration Intervention continuation
(i) Systematic early vs. late mobilization
Schweickert et al. [23] Comparator Standard care: therapy as ordered by the primary care team Median 7.4 days (IQR 6.0–10.9) after intubation N/A Median 0.0 h (IQR 0.0–0.0) per day during ventilation; 0.2 h (IQR 0.0–0.4) per day without ventilation Not specified
Intervention Passive range of motion, active range of motion, including bed mobility exercises, activities of daily living and other exercises increasing independency, transfer training (sit to stand, bed to chair, bed to commode), pre-gait exercises, walking Median 1.5 days (IQR 1.0–2.1) after intubation Once daily Median 0.3 h (IQR 0.2–0.5) per day during ventilation; 0.2 h (IQR 0.1–0.3) per day without ventilation Until hospital discharge
Morris et al. [32] Comparator Usual care: weekday physical therapy when ordered by the team Median 7 days (IQR 4–10) after ICU admission N/A N/A Not specified
Intervention Passive range of motions, physical therapy and progressive resistance exercises Median 1 days (IQR 0–2) after ICU admission 3 times daily, 7 days a week N/A Until hospital discharge
(ii) Systematic early vs. standard early mobilization
Dantas et al. [24] Comparator Conventional physical therapy: passive mobilization of the four limbs five times a week and active-assisted exercises according patients’ improvements N/A (all participants completed first session within 48 h after admissionb) 5 times per week N/A Until ICU discharge
Intervention Passive stretching and mobilization of the four limbs, positioning of the joints, active assisted exercises of the four limbs, transfer from lying to sitting position, active resistive exercises (against gravity or with weight) of upper limbs, cycle ergometry for lower limbs, transfer from sitting to chair, orthostatic posture, counter-resistance exercise on upper limbs, balance exercises, walking N/A (all participants completed first session within 48 h after admissionb) Twice daily N/A Until ICU discharge
Denehy et al. [25] Comparator Usual care: active bed exercises, sitting out of bed, marching or walking N/A (enrollment earliest at day 5b) N/A N/A Until hospital discharge
Intervention ICU: arm and leg active and active resistance movements, moving from sitting to standing, marching in place; ward: cardiovascular, progressive resistance strength training and functional exercise; Outpatient: cardiovascular, progressive resistance strength training and functional exercise N/A (enrollment earliest at day 5) Once daily while ventilated; twice daily after weaning 15 min per day in mechanically ventilated; 2 times 15 min per day in weaned; 2 times 30 min per day on ward; 2 times 60 min per week as outpatients for 8 weeks Beyond hospital stay
Brummel et al. [26]a Comparator Usual care: existing ICU mobility protocol Median 3 days (IQR 2–6) after enrollment 1–2 times per week N/A Not specified
Intervention (1) Physical therapy: passive range of motion, sit at the edge of bed, stand, walk, activities of daily living Median 1 days (IQR 1–1) after enrollment Once daily Median 15 min (IQR 10–20) for physicians & nurses; median 23 min (IQR 16–26) for physiotherapy Until hospital discharge
Intervention (2) Cognitive plus physical therapy: same as in physical therapy only + orientation, digit span forward, matric puzzle, real world, digit span reverse, noun list recall, letter-number sequences, pattern recognition Median 1 days (IQR 1–1) after enrollment, 3 days (IQR 2–4) after ICU admission Cognitive therapy twice daily; Physical therapy once daily Cognitive therapy median 20 min; Physical therapy median 15 min for physicians & nurses, median 23 min for physiotherapy Beyond hospital stay
Dong et al. [27] Comparator Control (not further described) N/A N/A N/A Not specified
Intervention Heading up actively, transferring from supine to sitting position, to sitting at the edge of bed, to sitting in a chair, from sitting to standing, walking bedside N/A Twice daily Tailored depending on the condition of patients Until hospital discharge
Kayambu et al. [28] Comparator Standard care: same as in intervention group but less N/A (4% completed first session within 48 hoursb) N/A N/A Until ICU discharge
Intervention NMES, passive range of motion, active range of motion, active resistance exercises, sitting up in bed, sitting out of bed, sit to stand, marching on the spot, sitting and standing balance exercises, arm or leg ergometry, tilt table therapy, ambulation N/A (46% completed first session within 48 hoursb) 1–2 times daily 30 min Until ICU discharge
Dong et al. [29] Comparator Therapy only after ICU N/A N/A N/A Not specified
Intervention Head up, transferring from supine to sitting position, sitting at the edge of bed, sitting in a chair, transferring from sitting to standing, walking along the bed N/A (100% completed first step in first session) Twice daily N/A Not specified
Hodgson et al. [31] Comparator Passive movements, same equipment would have been available Median 4 days (IQR 3–5)b Once daily 5–10 min per day Until ICU discharge
Intervention Functional activities, active bed exercises, comprising walking as long as possible, standing as long as possible, balance exercises, sitting in or out of bed, sitting balance, sit to stand, rolling Median 3 days (IQR 2–4) Once daily 30–60 min depending on the condition of patients Until ICU discharge
Schaller et al. [33] Comparator In line with the individual centers’ practice guidelines for mobilization and physical therapy N/A N/A N/A Not specified
Intervention Mobilization according to mobility algorithm: passive range of motion, sitting, standing, ambulation. Interprofessional mobility goal setting and identification of barriers N/A Once daily Tailored depending on the condition of patients Not specified
Eggmann et al. [34] Comparator Usual care as per the European standard physiotherapy and individually tailored but subject to medical prescription Median 2.2 days (IQR 1.5–2.9) after ICU admission Once daily, 5 days per week Median 18 min (IQR 14–21) Until hospital discharge
Intervention Motor-assisted bed-cycle, resistant training for upper and lower limbs, sitting on bedside, sitting in a chair, standing, walking Median 2.0 days (IQR 1.4–2.8) after ICU admission Up to 3 times daily, 7 days per week Median 25 min (IQR 19.5–27) Not specified
(iii) Systematic early vs. no mobilization
Fischer et al. [30] Comparator Sham NMES First postoperative day Twice daily, 7 days per week 30 min per session (60 min daily) Until ICU discharge
Intervention NMES First postoperative day Twice daily, 7 days per week 30 min per session (60 min daily) Until ICU discharge
  1. ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range, N/A not available, NMES neuromuscular electro-stimulation
  2. aThree-arm trial
  3. bInformation retrieved via personal communication with authors