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Table 1 Characteristics of study population (n = 69)

From: Duration of diaphragmatic inactivity after endotracheal intubation of critically ill patients

Characteristic Study population (n = 69)
Male, n (%) 41 (59.42)
Age (years), mean ± SD 63.33 ± 16.58
Body mass index, (kg/m2), mean ± SD 28.68 ± 9.31
Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II Scoring System (score)
 Mean ± SD 24.62 ± 8.28
 Median (IQR) 24.50 [19.00–30.00]
Reason for ICU admission, n (%)
 Elective surgery 1 (1.45)
 Emergency surgery 5 (7.25)
 Trauma 5 (7.25)
 Medical 58 (84.06)
Reason for intubation, n (%)
 Pulmonary 38 (55.07)
 Hemodynamic 13 (18.84)
 Neurologic 14 (20.29)
 Airway protection 4 (5.80)
Intubation time, n (%)
 Day (6am–9 pm) 57 (82.61)
 Night (9 pm–6am) 12 (17.39)
Arterial blood gasa
 FiO2, median (IQR) 0.50 [0.50–0.70]
 PaO2 (mmHg), mean ± SD 121.84 ± 48.86
 PaCO2 (mmHg), mean ± SD 44.16 ± 10.89
 HCO3 (mmol/L), mean ± SD 23.58 ± 6.24
 PaO2/FiO2 (mmHg), mean ± SD 226.36 ± 104.82
Baseline creatinine (µmol/L), median [IQR] 106.00 [71.00–176.00]
Baseline acute kidney injury stage, n (%)f
 No acute kidney injury 33 (47.83)
 1 22 (31.88)
 2 4 (5.80)
 3 10 (14.49)
Baseline bilirubin (µmol/L)c, median [IQR] 10.00 [7.00–17.00]
Ventilatory settings at diaphragm electrical activity catheter connection
 Volume or pressure assist-control ventilation, n (%) 62 (89.86)
PEEP (cmH2O), mean ± SD
 All patients 8.05 ± 2.96
 Patients on controlled mode (n = 62) 8.08 ± 3.08
 Patients on assisted mode (n = 7) 7.83 ± 1.72
Mean airway pressure (cmH2O), mean ± SD
 All patients 12.50 ± 3.93
 Patients on controlled mode (n = 62) 12.73 ± 4.01
 Patients on assisted mode (n = 7) 10.54 ± 2.53
Time with available diaphragm electrical activity recording (hours), median (IQR) 69.20 [45.05–96.20]
Tracheostomy during ICU stay, n (%)b 7 (10.14)
Mortality, n (%)
 At ICU discharge 17 (24.64)
 At hospital dischargec 25 (36.76)
Resumption of diaphragm electrical activity during study periodd
 Subjects with complete recordings, n (%) 61 (88.41)
 Time to resumption, n (%)
  < 24 h 35 (57.38)
  24 h–48 h 11 (18.03)
  48 h–72 h 6 (9.84)
  72 h–96 h 5 (8.20)
  > 96 h (no resumption) 4 (6.56)
 Estimated time (hours) to resumptione
  Median (IQR) 22.02 [0.00–50.28]
  Mean ± SE 35.20 ± 4.93
 Average diaphragm electrical activity (µV) during resumption, mean ± SD 8.60 ± 7.07
Use of sedative during the first 24 h, n (%)g 63 (91.30)
 Propofol, n (%) 49 (77.78)
  Cumulative dose (mg/kg), median [IQR] 18.99 [9.60–32.86]
 Midazolam, n (%) 46 (73.02)
  Cumulative dose (mg/kg), median [IQR] 0.07 [0.03–0.59]
 Fentanyl, n (%) 51 (80.95)
  Cumulative dose (µg/kg), median [IQR] 4.40 [1.40–15.91]
Neuromuscular blocking agent use, n (%)h
 No 16 (23.19)
 Yes 53 (76.81)
 Yes, for intubation 49 (71.01)
 Yes, additional bolus or continuous infusion 4 (5.80)
Sedation analgesia score (during the first 6 h of diaphragm electrical activity recording)i
 Median (IQR) 1.75 [1.00–2.50]
  1. FiO2, fraction of inspired oxygen; HCO3, bicarbonate; ICU, intensive care unit; PaCO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide; PaO2, partial pressure of oxygen; PEEP, positive end-expiratory pressure; SD, standard deviation; SE, standard error
  2. a63 patients had ABG measured at baseline. For 1 patient HCO3 was not available
  3. bTracheostomy performed after 120 h from first available diaphragm electrical activity
  4. cFor 1 patient, data was missing
  5. dPercentage was calculated on 61 patients with complete EAdi recordings
  6. eEstimated time was assessed on whole study population (69 patients) with Kaplan–Meier approach. Time to resumption is calculated from first available diaphragm electrical activity monitoring using a threshold of 7 μV
  7. fAcute kidney injury staging was determined using KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Kidney Injury
  8. g6 patients did not receive continuous sedative infusions in the first 24 h. Note that patients may have received sedation after resumption of EAdi—see Additional file 1: Table E1
  9. hStandard doses for neuromuscular blocking agents were used; intubation doses for rocuronium were 0.6–1.2 mg/kg, succinylcholine 1-2 mg/kg and cisatracurium 0.15–0.2 mg/kg. Continuous infusions of rocuronium or cisatracurium were titrated to clinical effect and were dosed as for 0.2 to 0.7 mg/kg/h and 0.06 to 0.18 mg/kg/h respectively as per hospital policy
  10. iSedation analgesia score not recorded in 54 patients in the first 6 h