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Table 2 Evolution of organ failure, vital signs, and laboratory findings during ICU stay according to the use of corticosteroids. Early = in the first 48 h of ICU admission

From: Early corticosteroids are associated with lower mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19: a cohort study

  Whole cohort Never Early Delayed p value
n (%) 882 191 (21.7%) 485 (55.0%) 206 (23.3%)  
Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 722/882 (81.9%) 139/191 (72.8%) a 395/485 (81.4%) 188/206 (91.3%)  < 0.001
Vasopressor use, n (%) 639/882 (72.4%) 126/191 (66.0%) 343/485 (70.7%) 170/206 (82.5%) c  < 0.001
Renal replacement therapy, n (%) 96/867 (11.1%) 14/183 (7.6%) 40/479 (8.3%) 42/205 (20.5%) c  < 0.001
SOFA maximum 8.6 (3.7)/729 8.2 (3.5)/132 8.2 (3.5)/426 9.7 (4.0)/171 c  < 0.001
Vital Signs      
Temperature maximum, ºC 37.9 (1.0)/869 37.9 (1.0)/183 37.7 (1.0)/481 b 38.2 (1.0)/205  < 0.001
Mean arterial pressure minimum, mmHg 68.8 (13.0)/868 70.7 (13.4)/182 69.1 (13.0)/480 66.4 (12.3)/206 c 0.001
Heart rate maximum, bpm 105.6 (20.9)/868 103.9 (21.7)/182 104.6 (20.9)/480 109.5 (19.9)/206c 0.006
SpO2, minimum, % 78.6 (16.2)/869 80.3 (16.2)/184 79.4 (15.1)/480 75.3 (18.2)/205 c  < 0.001
Respiratory rate, maximum, bpm 30 (7.0)/859 31 (7.7)/177 30 (6.6)/477 32 (7.2)/205 c 0.005
Respiratory rate, minimum, bpm 17 (4.4)/859 19 (5.0)/177 a 17 (4.4)/477 16 (3.8)/205  < 0.001
Arterial blood gas      
PaO2/FiO2 minimum 98.3 (47.9)/833 107.6 (56.9)/167a 96.6 (43.5)/466 94.3 (48.5)/200 0.03
PaCO2 maximum, mmHg 61.8 (19.3)/855 65.0 (21.2)/178 58.9 (18.0)/473 b 66.4 (19.3)/204  < 0.001
Laboratory findings      
Ferritin maximum, ng/mL 2305 (2257)/667 1771 (1863)/104a 2314 (2251)/389 2604 (2432)/174 0.003
D-Dimer maximum, ng/mL 5124 (2983)/809 4124 (2823)/158 a 5176 (3008)/452 5799 (2848)/199  < 0.001
CRP maximum, mg/dL 121 (138)/845 124 (140)/172 111 (128)/472 142 (154)/201 c 0.005
Lymphocytes minimum, mL 0.45 (0.34)/848 0.60 (0.41)/175 a 0.42 (0.31)/471 0.39 (0.29)/202  < 0.001
CRP/ lymphocyte ratio maximum 273 (447)/843 237 (382)/171 245 (389)/471 368 (590)/201 c 0.004
IL-6 maximum, pg/mL 957 (1787)/314 545 (1142)/22 933 (1803)/218 1148 (1884)/74 0.14
LDH maximum, U/L 648 (382)/828 566 (339)/162 a 659 (394)/467 686 (379)/199  < 0.001
Leukocytes maximum, 103/mL 15.5 (10.0)/843 13.1 (7.7)/173 a 16.2 (10.5)/467 15.9 (10.3)/203 0.001
Procalcitonin maximum, ng/mL 4.1 (9.9)/756 3.4 (9.5)/143 3.1 (7.3)/434 7.1 (14.2)/179 c  < 0.001
Platelets maximum, 1000/mm3 387 (153)/852 390 (152)/176 377 (149)/473 405 (161)/203 c 0.03
Bilirubin, maximum, mg/dL 2.3 (3.7)/803 1.8 (2.2)/152 a 2.3 (3.4)/461 2.9 (4.8)/190 0.001
AST maximum, U/L 198 (372)/845 145 (274)/175 a 199 (346)/470 240 (483)/200  < 0.001
Creatinine maximum, mg/dL 1.8 (1.7)/851 1.8 (1.8)/175 1.7 (1.5)/473 2.2 (1.9)/203 c 0.02
Urea maximum, mg/dL 115 (161)/764 117 (316)/157 106 (69)/423 135 (106)/184 c  < 0.001
NTProBNP, maximum pg/mL 1996 (4815)/261 2573 (6712)/41 1684 (4693)/152 b 2344 (3590)/68 0.04
Haematocrit minimum, % 38.2 (6.0)/834 37.0 (6.4)/171 38.8 (5.8)/464 b 37.8 (5.7)/199 0.003
Lactate maximum, mmol/L 0.4 (0.8)/692 0.3 (0.5)/142 0.4 (0.7)/392 0.4 (1.2)/158 0.33
  1. Statistically significant results are in italics
  2. aNever significantly different from early and delayed
  3. bearly significantly different from never and delayed
  4. cdelayed significantly different from never and early
  5. SOFA: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; CRP: C-reactive protein; LDH: lactate dehydrogenase; AST: aspartate Aminotransferase; NTProBNP: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide