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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients according to the use of corticosteroids. Delayed = after 48 h of ICU admission

From: Early corticosteroids are associated with lower mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19: a cohort study

  Whole cohort Never Early Delayed p value
Patients demographics and comorbidities
N (%) 882 191 (21.66%) 485 (54.99%) 206 (23.36%)  
Age, years 62.3 (11.4) 60.1 (13.9) a 62.9 (10.6) 63.0 (10.8) 0.06
Female (%) 291(33.1%) 66/191 (34.5%) 153/485 (31.5%) 72/204 (35.2%) 0.56
Body mass index (kg/m2) 29.2 (5.3)/550 28.71(5.4)/114 29.2(5.3)/292 29.5(5.3)/144 0.39
Arterial hypertension 420/882 (47.6%) 79/191 (41.4%) 240/485 (49.4%) 101/206 (49.0%) 0.14
Diabetes mellitus 201/882 (22.7%) 43/191 (22.5%) 111/485 (22.9%) 47/206 (22.8%) 1.00
Chronic heart failure 13/882 (1.4%) 1/191 (0.5%) 7/485 (1.4%) 5/206 (2.4%) 0.26
Chronic renal failure 52/882 (5.9%) 11/191 (5.7%) 28/485 (5.7%) 13/206 (6.3%) 0.96
Asthma 24/882 (2.7%) 5/191 (2.6%) 16/485 (3.3%) 3/206 (1.4%) 0.42
COPD 40/882 (4.5%) 5/191 (2.6%) 24/485 (4.9%) 11/206 (5.3%) 0.33
Obese 299/792 (37.7%) 66/170 (38.8%) 158/435 (36.3%) 75/187 (40.1%) 0.63
Dyslipidaemia 132/882 (14.9%) 21/191 (11.0%) 76/485 (15.6%) 35/206 (17.0%) 0.18
Cancer 27/882 (3.1%) 3/191 (1.6%) 8/485 (1.6%) 16/206 (7.8%)  < 0.001
Laboratory findings      
Haematocrit (%) 39.2 (5.7)/602 39.1(6.0)/122 39.3(5.6)/313 38.9(5.80)/167 0.62
Platelets, 1000/mm3 236 (108)/672 232(106)/130 242(108)/367 222(108)/175 0.11
Leukocytes, 103/μL 9.1(5.8)/663 8.6 (5.2)/129 9.4 (6.1)/360 8.6 (5.5)/174 0.10
Lymphocytes, μL 0.82 (0.72)/658 0.82 (0.45)/126 0.84 (0.87)/361 0.76 (0.49)/171 0.16
CRP, mg/dL 74.5 (98.9)/623 85.4 (110.9)/119 69.0 (93.2)/349 78.5 (101.2)/155 0.08
Lactate, mmol/L 0.43 (0.94)/475 0.39 (0.53)/99 0.44 (0.88)/245 0.46 (1.26)/131 0.27
Ferritin, ng/mL 1665 (1658)/285 1744(2191)/38 1725(1669)/179 1459(1241)/68 0.52
D-Dimer, ng/mL 2026 (2339)/522 1586 (1957)/96a 2184 (2507)/292 1996 (2177)/134 0.06
CRP/lymphocyte ratio 131 (234)/617 158 (342)/118 110(168)/344 154 (254)/155 0.08
IL-6, pg/mL 253 (486)/87 269 (154)/4 289 (543)/62 143 (308)/21 0.08
LDH, U/L 484 (240)/595 453 (268)/114a 483 (215)/330 508 (264)/151 0.06
Procalcitonin, ng/mL 1.36 (5.1)/454 0.91 (2.4)/83 1.15 (4.0)/260 2.18 (8.0)/111 0.44
Bilirubin, mg/dL 0.82 (1.16)/567 0.91 (1.46)/98 0.76 (0.61)/322 0.87 (1.72)/147 0.89
AST, U/L 58.3 (86.6)/650 68.5 (148.7)/122 57.2 (60.1)/359 53.3 (72.4)/169 0.45
Creatinine, mg/dL 1.05 (0.68)/658 1.07 (0.76)/124 1.03 (0.66)/361 1.07 (0.66)/173 0.90
Urea, mg/dL 46.5 (28.0)/462 43.7 (35.3)/80 46.6 (27.4)/265 47.9 (23.0)/117 0.05
NTProBNP, pg/mL 1880 (5166)/96 375 (1278)/64 177 (780)/194 89 (451)/83 0.28
Vital signs and organ support      
Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 27/882 (3.1%) 2/191 (1.0%) 20/485 (4.1%) 5/206 (2.4%) 0.09
Vasopressor use, n (%) 377/882 (42.7%) 77/191 (40.3%) 214/485 (44.1%) 86/206 (41.8%) 0.64
Renal replacement therapy, n (%) 5/882 (0.6%) 2/191 (1.0%) 2/485 (0.4%) 1/206 (0.5%) 0.62
PaO2/FiO2 150 (77)/559 153 (78)/107 151 (77)/305 146 (76)/147 0.71
PEEP, cmH2O 13.8 (2.6) / 257 13.5 (2.5) /51 14.0 (2.5) /136 13.4 (2.8) /70 0.15
SpO2, % 88.1 (9.2)/641 87.6 (10.6)/136 88.4 (7.8)/342 87.8 (10.4)/163 0.84
Respiratory rate, bpm 25.7 (7.3)/604 26.6 (8.7)/126 24.8 (6.5)/321 26.6 (7.3)/157 0.02
PaCO2, mmHg 40.2 (12.5) /615 40.4 (13.7) /128 40.0 (11.9) /325 40.5 (12.7) /162 0.91
Temperature, ºC 36.9 (1.1)/654 37.0 (1.1)/137 36.7 (1.0)/345 37.1 (1.1)/172 0.001
Mean arterial pressure, mmHg 86.7 (15.3)/644 86.9 (14.8)/134 86.8 (15.8)/341 86.3 (14.7)/169 0.96
Heart rate, bpm 85.2 (18.8)/658 88.2 (19.3)/142 84.0 (18.9)/346 84.9 (17.9)/170 0.18
Severity scores      
Apache II 13.51 (6.35)/600 12.45 (5.85)/121 13.77 (6.67)/348 13.78 (5.84)/131 0.17
CURB65 1.86 (1.22)/288 1.67 (1.26)/60 1.93 (1.23)/150 1.90 (1.16)/78 0.32
SOFA 5.64 (2.94)/474 5.85 (3.18)/86 5.58 (2.99)/266 5.60 (2.65)/122 0.66
  1. Statistically significant results are in italics
  2. aNever significantly different from early and delayed; p = 0.02
  3. COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; CRP: C-reactive protein; LDH: lactate dehydrogenase; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; NTProBNP: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; APACHE: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; CURB65: confusion, uremia, elevated respiratory rate, hypotension, and aged 65 years or older; SOFA: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment