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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of septic shock according to the culture results

From: Characteristics and clinical outcomes of culture-negative and culture-positive septic shock: a single-center retrospective cohort study

Characteristics Total
(N = 1,718)
CNSS
(N = 706)
CPSS
(N = 1,012)
P
Age 66.0 (58.0–74.0) 66.0 (56.0–74.0) 68.0 (59.0–74.0) 0.02
Male 1,035 (60.2) 450 (63.7) 585 (57.8) 0.01
Past illness     
 HTN 605 (35.2) 261 (37.0) 344 (34.0) 0.20
 DM 425 (24.7) 165 (23.4) 260 (25.7) 0.27
 CAD 182 (10.6) 72 (10.2) 110 (10.9) 0.66
 Pulmonary disease 108 (6.3) 49 (6.9) 59 (5.8) 0.36
 Malignancy 782 (45.5) 302 (42.8) 480 (47.4) 0.06
 Hematologic disorder 118 (6.9) 53 (7.5) 65 (6.4) 0.39
 CKD 238 (13.9) 128 (18.1) 110 (10.9)  < 0.01
 LC 29 (1.7) 9 (1.3) 20 (2.0) 0.34
Initial vital signs     
 SBP (mmHg) 91.0 (80.0–112.0) 90.0 (80.0–109.0) 93.0 (80.0–113.0) 0.28
 DBP (mmHg) 58.0 (50.0–69.0) 58.0 (50.0–68.0) 58.0 (50.0–71.0) 0.73
 PR (/min) 107.0 (89.0–125.0) 105.0 (88.0–123.0) 108.0 (90.0–126.0) 0.06
 RR (/min) 20.0 (20.0–24.0) 20.0 (20.0–24.0) 20.0 (20.0–22.0) 0.04
 BT (℃) 37.6 (36.6–38.7) 37.2 (36.5–38.2) 37.7 (36.7–38.9)  < 0.01
Laboratory     
 WBC (× 103/μL) 9.7 (5.0–15.9) 10.2 (5.5–16.2) 9.2 (4.7–15.7) 0.06
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 10.7 (9.1–12.4) 10.7 (9.2–12.6) 10.7 (9.0–12.3) 0.30
PT (INR) 1.3 (1.1–1.5) 1.3 (1.1–1.4) 1.3 (1.1–1.5) 0.20
 Lactate (mmol/L) 2.9 (1.7–5.1) 2.5 (1.5–4.5) 3.2 (1.9–5.4)  < 0.01
 BUN (mg/dL) 25.0 (17.0–38.0) 24.0 (17.0–39.0) 25.0 (17.0–37.0) 0.95
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.3 (0.9–2.1) 1.3 (0.9–2.2) 1.3 (0.9–2.1) 0.10
 Bilirubin (mg/dL) 1.1 (0.6–2.4) 0.9 (0.5–1.7) 1.3 (0.7–3.0)  < 0.01
 Albumin (g/dL) 2.6 (2.2–3.1) 2.6 (2.2–3.1) 2.6 (2.2–3.1) 0.37
 CRP (mg/dL) 11.6 (5.0–19.8) 11.1 (4.6–19.2) 11.9 (5.3–20.2) 0.02
SOFA score 7.0 (5.0–10.0) 7.0 (5.0–10.0) 8.0 (6.0–10.0)  < 0.01
Source control 653 (38.0) 202 (28.6) 451 (44.6)  < 0.01
Antibiotics escalation 189 (11.0) 31 (4.4) 158 (15.6)  < 0.01
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or mean with standard deviation
  2. Abbreviations: CNSS, culture negative septic shock; CPSS, culture positive septic shock; HTN, hypertension; DM, diabetes mellitus; CAD, coronary artery disease; CKD, chronic kidney disease; LC, liver cirrhosis; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; PR, pulse rate; RR, respiratory rate; BT, body temperature; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; WBC, white blood cells; PT, prothrombin time; INR, international normalized ratio; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; CRP, C-reactive protein; and SOFA, sequential organ failure assessment