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Table 2 Microorganisms involved in first ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with acute respiratory distress related to Coronavirus disease 19 (C-ARDS) or other viruses (NC-ARDS)

From: Risks of ventilator-associated pneumonia and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with viral acute respiratory distress syndrome related or not to Coronavirus 19 disease

Microorganisms NC-ARDS (n = 36) C-ARDS (n = 58)
Gram-negative bacilli   
Haemophilus sp 4 (11%) 0
Enterobacteriaceae 17 (47%) 42 (72%)
 Enterobacter sp 4 (11%) 23 (40%)
 Klebsiella pneumoniae 6 (17%) 4 (7%)
 Citrobacter sp 1 (3%) 2 (4%)
 Escherichia coli 4 (11%) 10 (17%)
 Hafnia 0 2 (4%)
 Morganella morganii 1 (3%) 0
 Serratia 2 (6%) 1 (2%)
 Proteus 0 4 (7%)
  Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae 7 (19%) 10 (18%)
  Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae 0 1 (2%)
Non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli 20 (56%) 24 (41%)
 Acinetobacter sp 1 (3%) 1 (2%)
 Pseudomonas sp 17 (47%) 16 (28%)
 Burkholderia Cepacia 0 1 (2%)
 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 2 (6%) 3 (5%)
Gram-positive bacteria 0 4 (3%)
 Streptococcus pneumoniae 0 0
 Others Streptococcus sp 0 2 (4%)
 Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus 0 2 (4%)
 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 0 0
 Enterococcus faecalis 0 1 (2%)
Polymicrobial 4 (11%) 13 (22%)
Diagnostic sampling techniques   
 Bronchoalveolar lavage 4 (11%) 3 (5%)
 Blind protected telescope catheter 32 (89%) 55 (95%)
  1. The total number of microorganisms is greater than 100% because more than one microorganism may be retrieved from a given respiratory sample