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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome related to Coronavirus disease 19 (C-ARDS) or other viruses (NC-ARDS)

From: Risks of ventilator-associated pneumonia and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with viral acute respiratory distress syndrome related or not to Coronavirus 19 disease

Variables NC-ARDS (n = 82) C-ARDS (n = 90) p value
Age, median [IQR] 63 [57–71] 59 [53–69] 0.09
Male gender 54 (66%) 74 (82%) 0.01
Medical history    
Mc Cabe and Jackson classification     < 0.001
 No underlying disease 47 (57%) 76 (84%)
 Ultimately fatal 24 (29%) 12 (13%)
 Rapidly fatal disease 11 (14%) 2 (2%)
Charlson comorbidity index 2 [1–3] 1 [0–2]  < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus 23 (28%) 39 (43%) 0.037
Congestive heart failure (NYHA 3–4) 6 (7%) 7 (8%) 0.91
Supraventricular arrhythmia 12 (15%) 8 (9%) 0.24
Hypertension 36 (44%) 59 (66%) 0.004
COPD 10 (12%) 9 (10%) 0.64
Chronic renal failure 11 (13%) 14 (16%) 0.69
Dialysis 3 (4%) 2 (2%) 0.67
Stroke 5 (6%) 4 (4%) 0.74
Liver cirrhosis (Child C) 1 (1%) 0 0.48
Current smoking 22 (27%) 25 (28%) 0.89
Immunosuppression conditions 40 (49%) 16 (18%)  < 0.001
 Solid cancer 4 (5%) 5 (6%) 0.99
 Blood cancer 17 (21%) 1 (1%)  < 0.001
 Organ transplant 9 (11%) 5 (6%) 0.19
 HIV infection 4 (5%) 3 (3%) 0.71
 Sickle cell disease 2 (2%) 3 (3%) 0.99
 Others 5 (6%) 2 (2%) 0.26
Clinical characteristics upon ICU admission    
SAPS II 49 [37–67] 36 [27–45]  < 0.001
Baseline SOFA—median [IQR] 9 [5–12] 7 [4–8]  < 0.001
PaO2/FiO2 ratio (mmHg) median [IQR] 162 [101–210] 120 [92–163] 0.005
ARDS classification (Berlin definition)    0.018
 Mild 24 (29%) 11 (12%)  
 Moderate 39 (48%) 49 (54%)  
 Severe 19 (23%) 30 (33%)  
Norepinephrine, n (%) 43 (52%) 42 (47%) 0.45
Serum creatinine (µmol/L) 108 [72–195] 83 [6–128] 0.004
White blood cell count (× 109/L) 7.5 [0–15] 8.2 [5–12] 0.49
Lymphocyte count (× 109/L) 0.6 [0.3–1.1] 0.8 [0.5–1.2] 0.03
Lymphocyte count (× 109/L) in non-immunocompromised patients 0.8 [0.4–1.2] 0.8 [0.5–1.2] 0.62
Documented bacterial coinfection 38 (48%) 14 (16%)  < 0.001
Treatment during the first 24 h    
Antibiotics 81 (99%) 90 (100%) 0.48
Antiviral treatment 58 (71%) 69 (76%) 0.39
Corticosteroids (any dose)* 30/81 (37%) 12/87 (14%) 0.001
Corticosteroids (low dose)*# 29/81 (36%) 10/87 (12%)  < 0.001
Corticosteroids (high dose)* 1/81 (1%) 2/87 (2%) 0.60
ARDS treatment during ICU stay    
Corticosteroids (any dose)* 37/81 (46%) 35 /87 (40%) 0.48
Corticosteroids (low dose)*# 33/81 (41%) 25/87 (29%) 0.10
Corticosteroids (high dose)* 3/81 (4%) 10/87 (12%) 0.06
Prone position 34 (42%) 75 (83%)  < 0.001
Neuromuscular blockade 53 (65%) 83 (92%)  < 0.001
Inhaled nitric oxide 10 (12%) 31 (34%) 0.01
Extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation 9 (11%) 23 (26%) 0.014
ICU-acquired infections    
First VAP 36 (44%) 58 (64%) 0.007
Number of days of mechanical ventilation before first VAP 7 [5–9] 8 [5–12] 0.89
Number of VAP during ICU 0 [0–1] 1 [0–2]  < 0.001
Recurrent VAP 10 (12%) 22 (25%) 0.36
MDR VAP during ICU stay 9 (11%) 21 (23%) 0.03
 ESBL PE VAP 9 (11%) 18 (20%) 0.10
 MRSA VAP 0 1 (1%) 0.99
 CRE VAP 0 3 (3%) 0.095
Sampling frequency (number/day of MV) 0.23 [0.14–0.37] 0.32 [0.20–0.38] 0.03
Organ support and outcome during ICU stay    
Subglottic secretion drainage 26 (32%) 42 (47%) 0.045
Renal replacement therapy during ICU stay 28 (34%) 30 (33%) 0.91
Norepinephrine, n (%) 66 (81%) 67 (74%) 0.34
ICU length of stay among survivors, days 15 [10–20] 30 [19–45]  < 0.001
Successful mechanical ventilation weaning 54 (66%) 46 (51%) 0.05
Death at day 28 25 (31%) 36 (40%) 0.19
Death in the ICU 27 (33%) 37 (41%) 0.27
Still in ICU or in weaning center (until May 28th, 2020) 0 8 (9%) 0.007
  1. VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, ICU intensive care unit, MDR multi-drug resistant, ESBL-PE extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, CRE carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, MV mechanical ventilation
  2. *Four missing values because two patients received dexamethasone or placebo in a randomized controlled trial
  3. #Less than 1 mg/kg of prednisone or equivalent