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Table 2 Clinical outcomes in the high flow nasal therapy (HFNT) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) groups

From: High flow nasal therapy versus noninvasive ventilation as initial ventilatory strategy in COPD exacerbation: a multicenter non-inferiority randomized trial

  HFNT group NIV group p value
N 40 39  
Treatment changes from baseline to 2 h, n (%)    
 Switching to NIV or HFNT 6 (15) 1 (2.6) 0.1084
 IMV 0 (0 1 (2.6) 0.4937
 No treatment change 34 (85) 37 (94.9) 0.2633
Treatment changes from baseline to 6 h, n (%)    
 Switch to NIV or HFNT 13 (32.5) 3 (7.7) 0.0061
 Switch to IMV 1 (2.5) 1 (2.6) 1.0000
 Switch to no support 2 (5) 6 (15.4) 0.1543
 No treatment change 24 (60) 29 (74.4) 0.1745
Poor treatment tolerance/intolerance from baseline to 6 hoursa, n (%)    
 In patients switching to NIV or HFNT or IMV 5 (35.7) 3 (75) 0.2745
 In patients switching to no support or with no treatment change 9 (34.6) 26 (74.3) 0.0019
Discomfort, median [IQR]    
 At 2 ha 1 [0–2] 3 [1–5] 0.0010
 At 6 hb 0 [0–2] 2 [1–4] 0.0003
Borg dyspnea score, mean ± SD    
 At 2 ha 3 ± 2 3 ± 2 0.2509
 At 6 hb 5 ± 2 5 ± 2 0.4865
No improvement of Borg dyspnea score at 6 h, n (%) 6 (15) 6 (15.4) 0.9620
Respiratory rate (per min), mean ± SD    
 At 2 hb 22 ± 5 22 ± 4 0.5789
 At 6 hc 20 ± 4 21 ± 4 0.5573
PaCO2 worsening or reduction < 10 mmHg after 6 h, n (%) 23 (57.5) 14 (35.9) 0.0544
IMV during hospitalizationd    
 Subjects, n (%) 2 (5) 1 (2.6) 1.0000
 Length of IMV (hours), median [IQR] 123
[45.5–200]
166
[166–166]
1.0000
NIV during hospitalization    
 Subjects, n (%) 23 (57.5) 39 (100.0)  < .0001
 Length of NIV (hours), median [IQR] 70
[14–142]
48
[18–75]
0.3007
Length of hospital stay (days), median [IQR]    
 All patients 10 [9–19] 13 [9–16] 0.6579
 Survivors at hospital discharge 10 [9–19] 13 [9–16] 0.5510
 Dead at hospital discharge 16 [9–22] 15 [3–19] 0.6150
In-hospital mortality, n (%) 2 (5) 6 (15.4) 0.1543
  1. HFNT high flow nasal therapy, IQR interquartile range [first and third quartile], IMV invasive mechanical ventilation, NIV noninvasive ventilation
  2. aPoor tolerance was defined as patient-reported complaint to the assigned treatment that did not cause treatment interruption. Intolerance was defined as patient-reported complaint that compromised the pursuit of the treatment (i.e., subject refusal)
  3. bOutcome evaluated on patients still receiving the assigned treatment at 2 h (34 HFNT, 37 NIV)
  4. cOutcome evaluated on patients still receiving the assigned treatment at 6 h (24 HFNT, 29 NIV)
  5. dIMV during hospitalization was calculated from baseline from hospital discharge or death