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Table 3 Cytokine profile during SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia

From: SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia—receptor binding and lung immunopathology: a narrative review

Cytokine response during SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia
Severe COVID-19: higher IL-2, IL-7, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, IP-10, macrophage inflammatory protein1 and tumor necrosis factor-α [44, 52]
Severe COVID-19: lower IL-10 when compared to stable COVID-19 [56]
IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α: maximum serum level in severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia 3–6 days after the disease onset [53]
IL-6: sustained increase and started decreasing around 13–16 days in severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia [53]
Cytokine profile in COVID-19 patients resembles haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis [69]
Cytokine profile in COVID-19 ARDS less exuberant than in hyper inflammatory phenotype of non-COVID ARDS [72]