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Fig. 6 | Critical Care

Fig. 6

From: SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia—receptor binding and lung immunopathology: a narrative review

Fig. 6

Permission was granted by Colling and Kanthi (©Public License (Creative Commons) [82]) to reuse this figure

Mechanisms of coagulopathy in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia: direct infection of type II pneumocytes and endothelial cells, leading to increased barrier permeability; inflammatory activation of T cells, neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and platelets resulting in exuberant inflammatory cytokine release, monocyte-derived TF and PAI-1 expression; development of microvascular and macrovascular thrombi composed of fibrin, NETs, and platelets. IL = interleukin; NETs = neutrophil extracellular traps; PAI-1 = plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; TF = tissue factor; TNF-α = tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

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