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Table 2 Patient outcomes

From: Use and impact of high intensity treatments in patients with traumatic brain injury across Europe: a CENTER-TBI analysis

  Low TIL (N = 445) High TIL (N = 313) p-value
General ICU outcomes (median, IQR)
 Length of ICU stay 11 [5.8–19] 17 [10–26]  < 0.001
 Duration of ventilation 8 [4.0–15] 14 [8–21]  < 0.001
 Time to obey commands 6 [2.0–11] 13 [21]  < 0.001
ICU systemic complications (N, %)
 Cardiovascular 52/441 (− 11.8) 34/307 (− 11.1) 0.853
 CRBSI 20/441 (− 4.5) 7/307 (− 2.3) 0.154
 DVT 5/441 (− 1.1) 7/307 (− 2.3) 0.351
 Pulmonary embolus 10/441 (− 2.3) 5/307 (− 1.6) 0.728
 Metabolic1 32/441 (− 7.3) 43/307 (− 14) 0.004
 Pressure sores 20/441(− 4.5) 15/307 (− 4.9) 0.962
 Respiratory failure 156/441 (− 35.4) 123/307 (− 40.1) 0.219
 VAP 107/441 (− 24.3) 85/307 (− 27.7) 0.332
 UTI 36/441 (− 8.2) 30/307 (− 9.8) 0.527
 Other 38/441 (− 8.6) 32/307 (− 10.4) 0.48
ICU discharge outcomes
 ICU mortality (N, %) 59/442 (− 13.3) 62/307 (− 20.2) 0.016
GCS discharge score
 Mild > = 13 (N, %) 121/445 (− 27.2) 75/313 (− 24) 0.36
 Moderate > = 9—< 13(N, %) 13/445 (− 2.9) 13/313 (− 4.2) 0.475
 Severe < 9 (N, %) 311/445 (− 69.9) 225/313 (− 71.9) 0.607
Outcomes after 6 months
 GOSE 344 /381 (− 90.3) 262/280 (− 93.6) 0.171
 GOSE < 8 (N, %) 202/381 (− 53) 175/280 (− 62.5) 0.019
 GOSE < 5 (N, %) 107/381 (− 28.1) 63/280 (− 22.6)  
 GOSE = 1 (N, %)    
Qolibri
 Impaired (< 52) (N, %) 32/ 173 (− 18.5) 29/121 (− 24) 0.321
SF-36 MCS
 Impaired (< 40) (N, %) 57/173 (− 32.9) 40/117 (− 34.2) 0.926
SF-36 PCS
 Impaired (< 40) (N, %) 57/173 (− 32.9) 40/117 (− 34.2) 0.926
  1. This table describes the outcomes of patients stratified by high versus a low therapy intensity level treatment. High TIL was defined as any high intensity treatment (decompressive craniectomy excluding day 1, barbiturates, intensive hypothermia, intensive hyperventilation) during ICU stay. Significant group differences were determined by using the chi-square or Fisher’s exact test (non-normal distributions) for categorical variables and an ANOVA or Kruskal Wallis test (non-normal distributions) for continuous variables
  2. 1Significant variation in proportion of abnormal lab values for high TIL vs. low TIL patients, i.e. creatinine (24.8% vs. 20.1%, p < 0.001), sodium (50.1% vs. 39.7%, p < 0.001), ASAT (49.1% vs 49.2%, p = 0.865), and ALAT (39.3% vs. 37.9%, p = 0.020)
  3. CRBSI: Catheter-related bloodstream infection, DVT: Deep Venous Thrombosis, GCS: Glasgow Coma Scale, GOSE: Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended, ICU: Intensive Care Unit, Qolibri: Quality of life after brain injury total score, SF-36 MCS: Short Form-36v2 Mental Component Summary, SF-36 PCS: Short Form-36v2 Physical Component Summary, TIL: therapy intensity level, VAP: ventilator acquired pneumonia