Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline patient and monitoring characteristics

From: Use and impact of high intensity treatments in patients with traumatic brain injury across Europe: a CENTER-TBI analysis

  Low TIL(N = 445) High TIL (N = 313) p-value
Age (median, IQR) 51 [30.0–65.0] 41 [27.0–65.0]  < 0.001
Gender, male (N,%) 326/445 (73.3) 235/313 (75.1) 0.632
Injury severity (GCS at baseline)
Mild > = 13 (N, %) 77/414 (18.6) 29/296 (9.8) 0.002
Moderate > = 9—< 13(N, %) 78/414 (18.8) 51/296 (17.2) 0.653
Severe < 9 (N, %) 259/414 (62.6) 216/296 (73.0) 0.005
ISS without head injury (median, IQR) 10 [0.0–25.0] 13 [0.0–25.0] 0.286
CT (N,%)
 tSAH 306/367 (− 83.4) 228/253 (− 90.1) 0.023
 EDH 73/366 (− 19.9) 58/254 (− 22.8) 0.443
Marshall (N, %)    
 1 11/367 (− 3) 5/253 (− 2)  < 0.001
 2 168/367 (− 45.8) 94/253 (− 37.2)  
 3 30/367 (− 8.2) 57/253 (− 22.5)  
 4 8/367 (− 2.2) 5/253 (− 2)  
 5 2/367 (− 0.5) 2/253 (− 0.8)  
 6 148/367 (− 40.3) 90/253 (− 35.6)  
Preinjury ASA (N, %)    0.001
 1) Normal healthy 230/428 (− 53.7) 194/296 (− 65.5)  
 2) Mild systemic disease 144/428 (− 33.6) 88/296 (− 29.7)  
 3) Severe systemic disease 51/428 (− 11.9) 13/296 (− 4.4)  
 4) Severe systemic disease, a constant threat to life 3/428 (− 0.7) 1/296 (− 0.3)  
Cause of injury (N, %)    0.295
 Road traffic incident 212/430 (− 49.3) 148/301 (− 49.2)  
 Incidental fall 166/430 (− 38.6) 106/301 (− 35.2)  
 Violence/assault 15/430 (− 3.5) 18/301 (− 6)  
 Suicide attempt 10/430 (− 2.3) 4/301 (− 1.3)  
 Other 27/430 (− 6.3) 25/301 (− 8.3)  
Prehospital1 (N, %)
 Hypoxia 89/445 (− 20) 39/313 (− 12.5) 0.009
 Hypotension 80/445 (− 18) 47/313 (− 15) 0.329
Lab1 (median, IQR)    
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 13.1 [11.6–14.4] 13.2 [11.9–14.3] 0.694
 Glucose (mmol/L) 7.9 [6.7–9.9] 7.8 [ 6.7–9.8] 0.933
Type ICP monitor (N, %)    0.511
 Ventricular 53/445 (− 11.9) 38/312 (− 12.2)  
 Ventricular + inbuilt sensor 7/445 (− 1.6) 10/312 (− 3.2)  
 Parenchymal 366/445 (− 82.2) 250/312 (− 80.1)  
 Other 19/445 (− 4.3) 14/312 (− 4.5)  
Multimodal cerebral monitoring (N, %)
 Jugular oximetry 9/445 (− 2) 20/312(− 6.4) 0.004
 Brain tissue PbtO2 84/445 (− 18.9) 65/312 (− 20.8) 0.555
 Transcranial Doppler 34/444 (− 7.7) 78/312 (− 25)  < 0.001
 Microdialysis 48/445 (− 10.8) 30/311 (− 9.6) 0.7
 Continuous EEG 21/445 (− 4.7) 38/311 (− 12.2)  < 0.001
 Electrocorticography 4/444 (− 0.9) 1/311 (− 0.3) 0.61
Systemic monitoring (N, %)
 Invasive blood pressure monitoring 432/445 (− 97.1) 306/312 (− 98.1) 0.53
 Cardiac output 74/444 (− 16.7) 80/312 (− 25.6) 0.003
 Pulse oximetry 436/445 (− 98) 303/312 (− 97.1) 0.6
 End tidal CO2 335/444 (− 75.5) 213/312 (− 68.3) 0.036
 Central venous pressure 261/444 (− 58.8) 190/312 (− 60.9) 0.612
Mechanical ventilation
 Present 416/441 (− 94.3) 287/312 (− 92) 0.261
  1. This table describes the baseline characteristics of patients with a high versus a low therapy intensity level (TIL). High TIL was defined as any high intensity treatment (decompressive craniectomy excluding day 1, barbiturates, intensive hypothermia, intensive hyperventilation) during the ICU stay. Significant group differences were determined by using the chi-square or Fisher’s exact test (non-normal distributions) for categorical variables and an ANOVAS or Kruskal Wallis test (non-normal distributions) for continuous variables
  2. 1IMPACT, first available
  3. ASA score: American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status score, CO2: carbon dioxide, CT: Computed tomography, CRBSI: catheter-related blood-stream infection EEG: electroencephalogram, GCS: Glasgow Coma Scale, ICP: intracranial pressure, ISS: injury severity score, IQR: interquartile range, PbtO2: brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen, TIL: therapy intensity level