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Table 2 Summary of cuff leak test and reference standards in the included studies

From: Performance of the cuff leak test in adults in predicting post-extubation airway complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author/year Type of cuff leak test Mode of mechanical ventilation Tidal volume Cutoff Diagnosis/sign of upper airway obstruction Observation period (hours) Incidence of upper airway obstruction, % (events/total)
Fisher/1992 [23] Qualitative Spontaneous ventilation NR Presence or absence of peritubular leak Direct laryngoscopy NR 11.3 (7/62)
Marik/1996 [28] Qualitative Spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation NR Presence or absence of peritubular leak Stridor 24 2 (2/100)
Miller/1996 [21] Quantitative Assist control NR 110 mL Stridor NR 6 (6/100)
Engoren/1999 [29] Quantitative Assist control 10- 12 mL/kg 110 mL Stridor NR 0.6 (3/531)
Sandhu/2000 [30] Quantitative Assist control NR 10% Stridor 24 11.8 (13/110)
De Bast/2002 [12] Quantitative Assist control NR 15.5% Stridor 24 13.2 (10/76)
Jaber/2003 [13] Quantitative Assist control 10- 12 mL/kg 130 mL/12% Stridor 48 11.6 (13/112)
Maury/2004 [31] Qualitative Spontaneous breathing via T-tube NR Presence or absence of respiratory flow Stridor 24 3.5 (4/115)
Erginel/2005 [32] Quantitative Assist control 7 mL/kg 283 mL/57% Stridor NR 10.4 (7/67)
Kriner/2005 [33] Quantitative Assist control NR 110 mL/15.5% Stridor 24 4.3 (20/462)
Cheng/2006 [34] Quantitative Assist control 8 mL/kg 24% Stridor 48 7.6 (18/236)
Chung/2006 [22] Quantitative Assist control 10 mL/kg 140 mL Laryngeal edema based on video bronchoscopy NR 36.8 (35/95)
Lim/2006 [35] Quantitative Assist control 8- 10 mL/kg 50 mL/14.7% Stridor 24 8.8 (3/34)
Lee/2007 [36] Quantitative Assist control 10 mL/kg 110 mL Stridor 48 7.7 (25/325)
Wang/2007 [37] Quantitative Assist control 10 mL/kg 88 mL/18% Stridor NR 18.2 (20/110)
Shin/2008 [38] Quantitative or qualitative Assist control 10 mL/kg 10% or audible air expired Stridor NR 2.0 (1/49)
Sukhupanyarek/2008 [39] Qualitative Used an ambu bag NR Presence or absence of audible leak Stridor 24 4.8 (26/543)
Antonaglia/2010 [40] Quantitative Spontaneous ventilation NR 70 mL (21%) Laryngeal lesions based on a rigid laryngoscope NR 4.8 (2/42)
Gros/2012 [41] Quantitative Assist control 10 mL/kg 130 mL Stridor 48 6.7 (7/104)
Keeratichananont/2012 [42] Quantitative Assist control 500 mL 114 mL Stridor 72 16.5 (19/115)
Radhi/2012 [43] Quantitative Assist control 6-8 mL/kg 15% Stridor 1 7.8 (4/51)
Sutherasan/2013 [44] Quantitative Assist control 10 mL/kg 110 mL Stridor or laryngoscopy finding (erythematous swell of vocal cords) NR 16.8 (17/101)
Mikaeli/2014 [49] Quantitative Assist control NR 110, 130, 249 mL Stridor 24 9.8 (4/41)
Patel/2015 [45] Qualitative Spontaneous breathing NR Presence or absence of audible leak Stridor 24 3.9 (2/51)
El-Baradey/2016 [46] Quantitative Assist control 8 mL/kg 200 mL Stridor 24 10.5 (45/432)
Sahbal/2016 [47] Quantitative Assist control NR 132.5 mL Stridor NR 8 (4/50)
Schnell/2017 [48] Quantitative/Qualitative Assist control/spontaneous breathing via T-tube/cough during spontaneous breathing 8 mL/kg Presence or absence of audible leak/110 mL Stridor 48 9.4 (34/362)
Samanta/2019 [50] Quantitative NR NR 110 mL Stridor NR 21.2 (11/52)
  1. NR not reported