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Table 2 Muscle ultrasound, strength, power and physical function

From: Acute skeletal muscle wasting and dysfunction predict physical disability at hospital discharge in patients with critical illness

Muscle parameter Day 1 Day 7
Ultrasound parameters n = 41 n = 41
 TA mT (cm) 2.01 (0.36) 1.82 (0.31)
 TA CSA (cmPP2PP) 5.28 (0.89) 4.71 (0.95)
 TA EI (0–255) 82.7 (21.2) 96.7 (22.6)
 RF mT (cm) 0.98 (0.3) 0.81 (0.27)
 RF + VI mT (cm) 2.04 (0.71) 1.77 (0.62)
 RF CSA (cmPP2PP) 2.99 (0.99) 2.47 (0.88)
 RF EI (0–255) 90.7 (24.9) 99.1 (27.6)
  ICU discharge Hospital discharge
Muscle power (W) n = 26a n = 33b
 2 lbs 8.0 (2.89) 9.6 (3.5)
 10% bodyweight 44.8 (22.6) 58.7 (30.6)
Muscle strength
 MRC-ss (0–60) 47.1 (7.3) (n = 31)c 51.4 (5.7) (n = 35)e
 RF HHD force (kg) 16.9 (5.3) (n = 24)d 19.8 (6.9) (n = 31)f
 RF HHD RFD (seconds) 3.8 (1.1) (n = 24)d 3.6 (1.1) (n = 31)f
 TA HHD (kg) 14.5 (5.2) (n = 24)d 15.6 (5.4) (n = 31)f
 TA HHD RFD (seconds) 3.9 (1.2) (n = 24)d 3.7 (1.2) (n = 31)f
 Handgrip (kg) 18.2 (9.1) (n = 26)a 21.7 (10.0) (n = 32)g
Physical function
 SPPB 4.7 (3.9) (n = 26)a 5.9 (4.0) (n = 35)e
 4-m gait speed (m/s) 0.49 (0.18) (n = 19)h 0.56 (0.27) (n = 31)f
 5 × STS (seconds) 14.8 (5.6) (n = 13)i 18.9 (14.5) (n = 28)j
 Balance 1.96 (1.4) (n = 19)h 2.3 (1.2) (n = 31)f
 6 MWT distance (feet) 265 (182) (n = 26)a 455 (424) (n = 35)e
CFS 6.1 (1.5) (n = 36) 5.3 (1.7) (n = 36)
  1. TA = tibialis anterior muscle; RF = rectus femoris muscle; CSA = cross-sectional area, mT = muscle layer thickness; EI = echointensity; MRC-ss = Medical Research Council-sum score; VI = vastus intermedius muscle; HHD = handheld dynamometer; RFD = rate of force development; SPPB = short performance physical battery; 5 × STS = five-times sit-to-stand test; 6 MWT = six-minute walk test; W = watts; CFS = clinical frailty scale
  2. aTen patients unable to complete test: 4 patients unable to follow commands/poor cognition; 3 patients had < 3/5 strength; 2 were missed by assessor; and 1 patient was unable to maintain oxygen saturations > 10% of baseline with simple movement in bed;
  3. bThree unable to complete: 2 patients with < 3/5 strength and 1 patient unable to complete test: missed by assessor
  4. cFive patients unable to complete: 4 patients unable to follow commands/poor cognition, 1 patient declined due to pain
  5. dTwelve patients unable to complete test: patients reported in footnote b plus 2 patients fatigued after initial testing and physically were unable to perform HHD testing
  6. eOne patient declined due to pain
  7. fFive patients unable to complete: 2 with < 3/5 strength, 2 deferred to pain/fatigue, 1 patient missed by assessor
  8. gFour patients unable to complete: 2 with < 3/5 strength, 1 deferred to pain/fatigue, 1 patient missed by assessor
  9. hSeventeen patients unable to complete test: patients reported in footnote b plus 7 patients unable to stand for balance or walk 4 m without physical assistance
  10. iTwenty-three patients unable to complete test: patients reported in footnote b plus 13 patients unable to stand from chair in time allotted or without assistance
  11. jEight patients unable to complete: 2 with < 3/5 strength, 2 deferred to pain/fatigue, 1 patient missed by assessor, 3 patients could not perform without assistance