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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Inpatient hospital performance is associated with post-discharge sepsis mortality

Characteristic Descriptive statistics
All cases (n = 830,720) Survived to discharge (n = 662,866)
n (%) n (%)
Patient characteristics   
 Sex   
  Male 393,852 (47.4) 314,824 (47.5)
  Female 436,868 (52.6) 348,042 (52.5)
 Race   
  White 641,526 (77.2) 512,243 (77.3)
  Black 101,581 (12.2) 79,308 (12.0)
  Other 87,613 (10.6) 71,315 (10.8)
 Age   
  65–74 years 274,021 (33.0) 225,032 (33.9)
  75–84 years 303,933 (36.6) 242,410 (36.6)
  85+ years 252,766 (30.4) 195,424 (29.5)
 Urbanicity of residence (by RUCC code)   
  Urban (metro counties) 740,872 (89.2) 590,784 (89.1)
  Rural (nonmetro counties) 89,377 (10.8) 71,715 (10.8)
  Other/unknown 471 (0.1) 367 (0.1)
 Cancer diagnosis   
  None 715,653 (86.2) 580,536 (87.6)
  Metastatic solid tumor 10,656 (1.3) 7,208 (1.1)
  Non-metastatic solid tumor 72,133 (8.7) 51,807 (7.8)
  Hematologic malignancy 32,278 (3.9) 23,315 (3.5)
 Infection source   
  Urinary tract 338,046 (40.7) 288,389 (43.5)
  Pneumonia 225,647 (27.2) 171,908 (25.9)
  Abdominal 33,433 (4.0) 24,135 (3.6)
  Bloodstream 26,217 (3.2) 22,148 (3.3)
  Cellulitis 24,288 (2.9) 21,407 (3.2)
  Bone 17,909 (2.2) 15,247 (2.3)
  Surgical 10,960 (1.3) 9329 (1.4)
  Ear, nose, throat 1240 (0.2) 1130 (0.2)
  Meningitis 1051 (0.1) 832 (0.1)
  Gastrointestinal 794 (0.1) 755 (0.1)
  Other/unknown 151,135 (18.2) 107,586 (16.2)
 Organ dysfunction   
  Renal 250,655 (30.2) 212,506 (32.1)
  Neurologic 227,220 (27.4) 177,610 (26.8)
  Metabolic 145,086 (17.5) 101,214 (15.3)
  Hematologic 73,996 (8.9) 61,618 (9.3)
  Cardiac 50,414 (6.1) 39,498 (6.0)
  Respiratory 41,985 (5.1) 35,072 (5.3)
  Hepatic 8396 (1.0) 5525 (0.8)
  Other/unknown 32,968 (4.0) 29,823 (4.5)
 Admission from skilled nursing facility   
  No 759,098 (91.4) 618,575 (93.3)
  Yes 71,622 (8.6) 50,291 (7.6)
Hospital characteristics
 ICU services available   
  No 10,409 (1.3) 8,633 (1.3)
  Yes 736,934 (88.7) 588,136 (88.7)
  Not reported/unknown 83,377 (10.0) 66,097 (10.0)
 Council of teaching hospitals member   
  No 675,249 (81.3) 541,556 (81.7)
  Yes 150,440 (18.1) 117,176 (17.7)
  Not reported/unknown 5031 (0.6) 4134 (0.6)
Community characteristics (zip code)   
 Percent of population unemployed   
  0–5% 95,725 (11.5) 77,264 (11.7)
  6–8% 260,369 (31.3) 208,787 (31.5)
  9–11% 230,791 (27.8) 184,317 (27.8)
  12–15% 155,421 (18.7) 123,043 (18.6)
  ≥ 16% 88,414 (10.6) 69,455 (10.5)
 Percent of population, black or African American   
  0–1% 183,904 (22.1) 148,852 (22.5)
  2–3% 145,025 (17.5) 116,636 (17.6)
  4–5% 87,997 (10.6) 70,587 (10.6)
  6–10% 124,661 (15.0) 99,529 (15.0)
  11–20% 114,407 (13.8) 90,978 (13.7)
  21–40% 90,602 (10.9) 71,360 (10.8)
  ≥ 41% 84,124 (10.1) 64,924 (9.8)
 Percent of population, Hispanic   
  0–1% 90,385 (10.9) 72,473 (10.9)
  2–3% 153,434 (18.5) 123,561 (18.6)
  4–5% 106,717 (12.9) 85,911 (13.0)
  6–10% 156,509 (18.8) 124,846 (18.8)
  11–20% 136,061 (16.4) 108,231 (16.3)
  21–40% 101,608 (12.2) 803,78 (12.1)
  ≥ 41% 86,006 (10.4) 67,466 (10.2)
 Percent of population, high school degree or higher   
  0–20% 105,685 (12.7) 83,642 (12.6)
  21–25% 129,294 (15.6) 102,210 (15.4)
  26–28% 103,013 (12.4) 82,093 (12.4)
  29–33% 177,288 (21.3) 142,046 (21.4)
  34–38% 149,051 (17.9) 119,137 (18.0)
  39–45% 107,329 (12.9) 86,421 (13.0)
  ≥ 46% 59,060 (7.1) 47,317 (7.1)
 Percent of population, below poverty line   
  0–7% 159,421 (19.2) 128,113 (19.3)
  8–10% 118,812 (14.3) 95,364 (14.4)
  11–15% 183,827 (22.1) 147,216 (22.2)
  16–18% 91,917 (11.1) 73,484 (11.1)
  19–25% 152,570 (18.4) 121,147 (18.3)
  ≥ 26% 124,173 (15.0) 97,542 (14.7)