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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with coronavirus disease 2019

From: Corticosteroid therapy for coronavirus disease 2019-related acute respiratory distress syndrome: a cohort study with propensity score analysis

Characteristics All Corticosteroids No corticosteroids p value
N 382 (100.0) 226 (59.2) 156 (40.8)
Age (year) 60.7 ± 14.1 59.1 ± 14.0 63.0 ± 14.0 0.0077
Male sex 234 (61.3) 150 (66.4) 84 (53.8) 0.0135
Smoking history 35 (9.2) 24 (10.6) 11 (7.1) 0.2347
Days from onset at hospital admission 11.0 (8.0–15.0) 10.0 (7.0–14.0) 12.0 (9.0–16.5) 0.0029
Medical history
 Chronic pulmonary disease 20 (5.2) 12 (5.3) 8 (5.1) 0.9376
 Hypertension 136 (35.6) 79 (35.0) 57 (36.5) 0.7508
 Diabetes 67 (17.5) 36 (15.9) 31 (19.9) 0.3193
 Chronic liver disease 15 (3.9) 11 (4.9) 4 (2.6) 0.2546
 Chronic renal disease 6 (1.6) 2 (0.9) 4 (2.6) 0.1945
 Cardiovascular disease 28 (7.3) 12 (5.3) 16 (10.3) 0.0682
 Malignant tumor 12 (3.1) 7 (3.1) 5 (3.2) 0.9527
 Hematological malignant tumor 2 (0.6) 1 (0.5) 1 (0.7) 0.8339
 Immunosuppressive conditions 14 (3.7) 9 (4.0) 5 (3.2) 0.6911
SOFA score at hospital admission 2.0 (2.0–3.0) 2.0 (2.0–3.0) 2.0 (2.0–3.0) 0.1383
Corticosteroid therapy before hospital admission 40 (10.5) 28 (12.4) 12 (7.7) 0.1405
Vital signs at hospital admission
 Temperature (°C) 36.8 ± 0.7 36.9 ± 0.8 36.7 ± 0.5 0.0069
 Heart rate (min−1) 90.9 ± 15.3 92.9 ± 16.3 88.0 ± 13.1 0.0018
 Respiratory rate (min−1) 24.0 ± 6.3 24.5 ± 7.1 23.3 ± 5.0 0.0609
Laboratory findings
 Blood leukocyte count (× 109/L) 8.1 (5.2–11.3) 8.4 (5.1–11.7) 7.5 (5.4–10.0) 0.2593
 Lymphocyte count (× 109/L) 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 0.6 (0.5–0.8) 0.8 (0.6–1.1) < 0.0001
Neutrophil count (× 109/L) 6.9 (4.0–10.2) 7.4 (4.2–10.7) 5.7 (4.0–8.7) 0.0508
SpO2/FiO2 229.3 (175.5–352.4) 218.6 (170.0–366.7) 241.5 (184.0–332.8) 0.2133
CRP (mg/L) 89.0 (38.0–159.9) 96.7 (45.9–160.0) 68.7 (28.6–138.5) 0.0026
D-dimer (mg/L) 1.5 (0.7–8.0) 1.5 (0.6–9.5) 1.5 (0.7–7.1) 0.9913
Lactate dehydrogenase (U/L) 409.0 (304.0–545.0) 429.0 (320.0–569.0) 386.5 (277.0–509.5) 0.0124
 Bilateral involvement 358 (93.7) 214 (94.7) 144 (92.3) 0.3455
Severity of ARDSa
 Mild 120 (31.4) 60 (26.5) 60 (38.5) 0.0297
 Moderate 157 (41.1) 99 (43.8) 58 (37.2)  
 Severe 105 (27.5) 67 (29.6) 38 (24.4)  
Antivirus drugs
 Lopinavir 91 (24.0) 72 (31.9) 19 (12.4) < 0.0001
 Ganciclovir 32 (8.4) 19 (8.4) 13 (8.5) 0.9754
 Interferon 103 (27.2) 65 (28.8) 38 (24.8) 0.3994
 Oseltamivir 64 (16.9) 52 (23.0) 12 (7.8) 0.0001
 Antibiotics 371 (97.1) 224 (99.1) 147 (94.2) 0.0126
Respiratory support during hospital stay
 High-frequency oscillation ventilation 146 (38.8) 100 (45.2) 46 (29.7) 0.0023
 NIMV 147 (38.5) 104 (46.0) 43 (27.6) 0.0003
 IMV 94 (24.6) 59 (26.1) 35 (22.4) 0.4130
 ECMO 11 (2.9) 8 (3.5) 3 (1.9) 0.3530
Hyperglycemia 32 (8.4) 20 (8.8) 12 (7.7) 0.6882
In-hospital 60-day mortality 203 (53.1) 135 (59.7) 68 (43.6) 0.0019
In-hospital days for all patients 12.0 (7.0–18.0) 14.0 (9.0–21.0) 10.0 (6.0–13.0) < 0.0001
In-hospital days for survivors 13.0 (10.0–19.0) 16.0 (11.0–24.0) 11.0 (8.5–15.0) < 0.0001
Median survival time (days) 18.0 (15.0–20.0) 19.0 (15.0–21.0) 15.0 (12.0–23.0) 0.0239
Duration of viral shedding from symptom onset (days) 18.0 (14.0–23.0) 19.0 (14.0–23.0) 18.0 (14.0–24.0) 0.7217
  1. Data are n (%), mean (SD), or median (IQR). For continuous variables, t test or Mann–Whitney U test was used to calculate the p value unless otherwise noted. For categorical variables, chi-square test was used to calculate the p value unless otherwise noted
  2. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, CRP c-reactive protein, MV mechanical ventilation, NIMV noninvasive mechanical ventilation, IMV invasive mechanical ventilation, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, SpO2 pulse oxygen saturation, FIO2 fraction of inspired oxygen. ARDS was defined according to World Health Organization interim guidance
  3. aPaO2/FiO2 was estimated from SpO2/FiO2 if PaO2/FiO2 was not available [37]