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Table 1 Characteristics of the 79 patients and comparisons between patients treated with tocilizumab + Std therapy and those treated with Std therapy alone

From: Efficacy of tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19 ARDS undergoing noninvasive ventilation

  Overall population Tocilizumab + Std therapy Std therapy p value
Demographics and clinical features
 No. of patients 79 41 38  
 Age (years), mean ± SD 66.5 ± 11.4 63.3 ± 10.6 70.3 ± 11.3 0.005
 Male, n (%) 56 (71) 29 (71) 27 (71) 0.9
 Smokers, n (%) 3 (4) 2 (5) 1 (3) 0.9
 Former smokers, n (%) 22 (28) 12 (29) 10 (26) 0.8
 Non-smokers, n (%) 54 (68) 27 (66) 27 (71) 0.6
 BMI, mean ± SD 29.7 ± 5.2 30.6 ± 5.3 28.4 ± 4.7 0.1
 Number of comorbidities, mean ± SD 2.9 ± 2.1 2.6 ± 1.7 3.2 ± 2.4 0.2
 Charlson Comorbidity index, mean ± SD 3.4 ± 2.2 2.7 ± 2.1 4.2 ± 2.2 0.002
 SOFA index at admission, mean ± SD 4.3 ± 1.3 4 ± 1.1 4.6 ± 1.5 0.07
 Not eligible for ICU, n (%) 18 (23) 5 (12) 13 (34) 0.03
 Respiratory rate (breaths/min), mean ± SD
  At admission 24.6 ± 4.9 24.8 ± 4.7 24.4 ± 5.3 0.9
  At 72 h 25.6 ± 7.3 25.8 ± 6.8 25.5 ± 8.1 0.8
  At 7 days 21.3 ± 5.8 19.8 ± 2.6 22.4 ± 7.3 0.5
Outcomes
 Intubation/death, n (%) 41 (52) 16 (39) 25 (64) 0.02
 Death, n (%) 30 (38) 10 (24) 20 (53) 0.01
Treatment
 Hydroxychloroquine, n (%) 75 (95) 41 (100) 34 (89) 0.05
 Antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/cobicistat), n (%) 41 (52) 20 (49) 21 (55) 0.7
 Anticoagulants (full dosage), n (%) 20 (25) 10 (24) 10 (26) 0.9
 Steroids (methylprednisolone 0.5–1 mg/kg/die) 55 (70) 28 (68) 27 (71) 0.9
 Tocilizumab, n (%) 41 (52)    
  IV, n (%) 28 (36)    
  SC, n (%) 13 (16)