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Table 5 Summary of studies using ferrets, cat, and dog models of SARS-CoV-2 infection

From: Evidence of a wide gap between COVID-19 in humans and animal models: a systematic review

Species (ref) Number age (gender) Virus strain dose* (inoculation route)† Clinical signs & observation duration (DPI)§ Viral replication‡ (DPI) Pathology & sacrificing date (DPI) Immune response Seroconversion (DPI) Outcome measures
Ferrets n = 12 NMC-nCoV02/Korea Increased body temperature Nose, saliva, urine, and feces Acute bronchiolitis NA‡ IgG and serum-neutralizing antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 (12) Pathogenesis of COVID-19
Infiltrates of immune cells and debris (4)
12–20 months 105.5 TCID50 Reduced activity `   (4, 8, 12)
Assess viral transmission
M/F IN occasional coughs
(12)
Trachea, lung, kidney, serum, and intestine (2)
n = 12 Control NO
(12)
NO NO
(4, 8, 12)
NO NO
12–20 months  
M/F  
Kim et al. (2020) [60] n = 6
(naïve direct contact)
Direct contact Increased body temperature
(12)
All animals were infected (2) (12)   IgG and serum-neutralizing antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 (12)
n = 6
(naïve indirect contact)
Indirect contacts No increased body temperature
(12)
Nose, feces (2 out of 6 animals)
(4)
(12)   IgG antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 (12)
Serum-neutralizing antibody response in 1 out of 6
Ferrets
Blanco-Melo et al. (2020) [61]
n = 6 USA-WA1/2020 NA
(14)
Nose, trachea NA
(3, 14)
Reduced interferon type I and III response NA Host interferon response
4 months 5 × 104 PFU (3,7)  
Castrated male IN   Increase proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines response
Ferrets
Richard et al. (2020) [62]
n = 4 BetaCoV/Munich/BavPat1/2020 NA
(21)
Nose, throat, rectum NA
(21)
NA IgG antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 (21) Viral transmission
6 months (F) 6.105 TCID50
Donor IN
n = 4 6 h post-inoculation co-housed with donor NA
(21)
Nose, throat, rectum (1) NA
(21)
NA IgG antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 (21)
6 months (F)
direct contact
n = 4 1 dpi placed in an opposite cage (10 cm) of donor NA
(21)
Nose, throat, rectum (3) NA
(21)
NA IgG antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 (21)
6 months (F)
Indirect contact
Ferrets n = 10 SARS-CoV-2 /F13/environment/2020/Wuhan Fever Nose, throat, and rectum (low titer) (4–8) Severe lymphoplasmacytic, perivasculitis   IgG antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 (13) Pathogenesis of COVID-19
3–4 months
F
  Loss of appetite
(20)
  Vasculitis NA
SARS-CoV2/CTan/human/2020/Wuhan]    Increased type II pneumocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils in the alveolar septa and alveolar lumen.
105 PFU    Mild peribronchitis (13)
IN    (4, 20)
n = 8 SARS-CoV2/CTan/human/2020/Wuhan] NA
(14)
Nose, throat
(2–8)
NA
(2, 4, 8, 14)
NA NA
3–4 months 105 PFU
F IT
Cats n = 10 SARS-CoV-2 /CTan/human/2020/Wuhan NA
(20)
Nose, soft palate, tonsil, trachea, lungs, and small intestines. NA
(3, 6, 10, 20)
NA IgG antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 (10)
6–9 months 105 PFU
M\F IN
Sub-adult
n = 10 SARS-CoV-2 /CTan/human/2020/Wuhan One cat died (3)
(12)
Nose, soft palate, tonsil, trachea, lungs, and small intestines. Extensive nasal, tonsil, tracheal, lung, and small intestine epithelial mucosal lesions (3)
(3, 6, 11,12)
NA IgG antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 (10)
70–100 days 105 PFU
M/F IN
Juvenile
Dogs n = 5 SARS-CoV-2-2/CTan/human/2020/Wuhan NA Rectum (2/5) NA NA IgG antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 (14)
3-month beagles 105 PFU
IN,
Shi et al. (2020) [63] n = 2 Exposed to donor NA No NA NA No
3 month
Beagles
  1. *TCID50 Median Tissue Culture Infectious Dose at which 50% of the cells are infected, PFU plaque-forming unit, †IT intratracheal, IN intranasal, CJ intraconjunctival, OC ocular, IG intragastric, PO per oral, IP intraperitoneal, ‡ viral replication RNA copies (PCR), viral antigen (immunostaining), viral particles (electron microscopy), § dpi day post-inoculation