Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparisons of patients groups

From: Therapeutic plasma exchange in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in intensive care unit: a retrospective study

  GI (d-dimer < 2) (n = 20) GII (d-dimer ≥ 2)
Before PSM After PSM
GIIa (TPE+) (n = 18) GIIb (TPE−) (n = 35) p1 (GI and GIIa) p2 (GIIa and GIIb) GIIa (TPE+) (n = 12) GIIb (TPE−) (n = 12) p2 (GIIa and GIIb)
Age (years) 60 ± 14 62 ± 12 62 ± 15 0.615 0.951 61 ± 14 64 ± 17 0.605
Male, n (%) 13 (65.0) 14 (77.8) 26 (74.3) 0.386 0.780 8 (66.7) 8 (66.7) 1.000
BMI (kg/m2) 27.3 (5.8) 27.9 (5.5) 27.3 (6.6) 0.290 0.237 28.5 (6.1) 25.0 (6.6) 0.078
CCI 2.5 (4) 3 (3) 4 (3) 0.919 0.422 3.0 ± 2.2 3.8 ± 1.7 0.270
At the ICU admission
 APACHE II 12 ± 4 17 ± 4 17 ± 5 0.002 0.886 17 ± 3.3 17.5 ± 5.6 0.794
 SOFA Score 5 (3) 6 (1) 7 (3) 0.002 0.223 6 (2) 6 (2) 0.713
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio 128 (68) 97 (51) 113 (79) 0.251 0.229 108 (106) 125 (103) 0.551
 SpO2 (%) 89 (5) 91 (7) 89 (5) 0.377 0.597 92 (10) 91 (5) 0.590
 Lactate (mmol/L) 1.4 (0.6) 1.4 (0.7) 1.4 (0.9) 0.988 0.631 1.5 (0.8) 1.3 (0.5) 0.291
 WBC (×103/μL) 9.6 (3.9) 6.9 (6.4) 8.2 (6.5) 0.573 0.353 8.7 ± 4.9 7.4 ± 2.7 0.430
 Lymc (×103/μL) 0.82 ± 0.40 0.80 ± 0.34 0.89 ± 0.42 0.553 0.271 0.83 ± 0.3 0.82 ± 0.5 0.963
d-dimer (mg/L)& 1.2 (0.3–1.9) 5.0 (2.1–35.2) 7.2 (2.1–35.5) < 0.001 0.151 4.5 (2.1–35.2) 6.0 (2.2–32.2) 0.514
 Ferritin (ng/mL) 1015 (1735) 1735 (1853) 900 (1454) 0.158 0.018 1742 (2117) 605 (1346) 0.012
 IL-6 (pg/mL)& 28.3 (5.3–1418)(8) 134 (36.2–2958)(13) 254 (33–5233)(13) 0.036 0.101 155 (39.6–2958)(8) 237 (33–4885)(4) 0.933
 CRP (mg/dL) 18.6 ± 10.9 22.2 ± 12.1 27.8 ± 10.4 0.340 0.086 19.2 ± 10.3 24.0 ± 11.0 0.275
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.88 (0.29) 0.87 (0.37) 0.99 (0.82) 0.874 0.051 0.91 ± 0.3 0.90 ± 0.3 0.944
 Urea (mg/dL) 28 (29) 32 (19) 36 (26) 0.942 0.288 28 (32) 35 (14) 0.291
 Number of damaged lobes, n (%)& 3 (2–4) 3 (2–5) 3 (2–5) 0.149 0.118 3 (2–5) 3 (3–5) 0.671
In the first 48 h
 Breath rate/min (max) 34 (6) 33 (9) 33 (5) 0.988 0.713 33 (11) 33 (5) 0.590
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio (min) 117 ± 42 98 ± 30 105 ± 34 0.087 0.376 104 ± 32.4 120 ± 32.5 0.235
 FiO2 (%) (max) 75 (48) 80 (30) 80 (35) 0.082 0.969 80 (25) 80 (30) 0.799
 PEEP (cmH2O) (max) 12 (6) 12 (4) 14 (4) 0.502 0.056 12.0 ± 2.3 13.0 ± 1.9 0.215
 Cdyn (ml/cmH2O) (min) 44 (6) 37 (12) 41 (8) 0.003 0.058 36.3 ± 6.6 39.5 ± 7.0 0.265
In the first week
 WBC (×103/μL) (max) 13.2 (5.8) 11.0 (8.9) 12.6 (6.6) 0.077 0.086 10.4 (10.3) 11.0 (6.7) 0.590
 WBC (×103/μL) (min) 5.9 (2) 6.3 (4) 4.9 (4) 0.718 0.612 6.7 (4.4) 4.6 (1.5) 0.219
 Lymc (×103/μL) (min) 0.48 (0.40) 0.5 (0.28) 0.49 (0.46) 0.919 0.573 0.52 (0.29) 0.45 (0.28) 0.551
 NLCR (max) 16.4 (16.2) 15 (8) 11 (11) 0.460 0.517 13.6 (10.1) 11.6 (11.5) 0.843
 Lactate (mmol/L) (max) 2.1 (0.7) 2.4 (1.1) 2.4 (0.8) 0.087 0.955 2.3 (1.0) 2.4 (1.6) 0.347
 Fluid balance (mL) 3670 (3198) 4552 (2973) 3849 (2196) 0.874 0.441 4174 ± 2907 5331 ± 3170 0.361
 Total fluid (mL/kg/day) 40.7 (9.3) 44.3 (15.5) 44.8 (11) 0.696 0.910 44.8 ± 13.5 48.7 ± 12.0 0.460
Respiratory support (max), n (%)
 IMV 13 (65.0) 16 (88.8) 30 (85.7) 0.084 0.746 11 (91.7) 12 (100) 0.307
 NIMV 3 (15.0) 1 (5.6) 3 (8.6) 0.344 0.694 1 (8.3) 0 0.307
 HFOT 4 (20.0) 1 (5.6) 2 (5.7) 0.188 0.981 0 0 NA
Additional therapies, n (%)         
 Cytokine filters 1 (5.0) 3 (16.7) 3 (8.1) 0.427 0.434 2 (16.7) 1 (8.3) 0.592
 IL-6 blocker 12 (60.0) 9 (50.0) 20 (57.1) 0.536 0.621 7 (58.3) 6 (50) 0.682
 Steroids 11 (55.0) 10 (55.6) 20 (57.1) 0.357 0.912 7 (58.3) 7 (58.3) 1.000
 Duration of IMV (h)& 168 (0–816) 286 (0–1008) 192 (0–720) 0.1 12 0.067 316 ± 271 278 ± 139 0.671
 AKI, n (%) 7 (35.0) 6 (33.3) 19 (54.3) 0.914 0.148 3 (25) 6 (50) 0.206
 Tracheotomized patients, n (%) 2 (10.0) 2 (11.1) 1 (2.9) 0.911 0.218 1 (8.3) 0 (0) 0.307
 LOS-ICU, (days)& 12 (6–34) 20 (5–42) 11 (7–35) 0.017 0.003 20 ± 10 14 ± 5 0.067
 Mortality, n (%) 1 (5.0) 3 (16.7) 16 (45.7) 0.242 0.037 1 (8.3) 7 (58.3) 0.009
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, BMI body mass index, CCI Charlson comorbidity index, Cdyn dynamic compliance, CRP C-reactive protein, HFOT high-flow oxygen therapy, ICU intensive care unit, IL-6 interleukin-6, IMV invasive mechanical ventilation, LOS length of stay, Lymc lymphocyte count, NIMV non-invasive mechanical ventilation, NLCR neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio, PSM propensity score matching, SOFA, sequential organ failure assessment, TPE therapeutic plasma exchange, WBC white blood cell. Results were given as percentage, mean ± sd, and median (IQR or min-max). &Minimum and maximum values. Student t and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis