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Table 3 Definitions of early and late norepinephrine group in studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Timing of norepinephrine initiation in patients with septic shock: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Early group Late group
Bai et al. 2014 [24] Time from the onset of septic shock to initial norepinephrine administration < 2 h Time from the onset of septic shock to initial norepinephrine administration ≥ 2 h
Permpikul et al. 2019 [29] Median time from emergency room arrival to norepinephrine administration was 93 min Median time from emergency room arrival to norepinephrine administration was 192 min
Elbouhy et al. 2019 [30] Patients received initial resuscitation as simultaneous administration of crystalloid fluids (the target was 30 mL/kg) together with norepinephrine infusion in a starting dose of 5 μg/min administered in an external jugular peripheral cannula Patients’ resuscitation included crystalloid fluids (the target was 30 mL/kg) and immediate ICU transfer where the norepinephrine infusion was administered only to patients with mean arterial pressure < 65 mmHg after fluids resuscitation via a central venous catheter
Colon Hidalgo et al. 2020 [25] The time when vasopressors were initiated ≤ 6 h The time when vasopressors were initiated > 6 h
Ospina-Tascón et al. 2020 [26] Vasopressor support initiated within the next hour or even before the first fluid load with resuscitative intention (FRLoad) Patients in whom vasopressor support was started > 1 h after the FRLoad