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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients

From: Delirium and encephalopathy in severe COVID-19: a cohort analysis of ICU patients

  All patients (n = 140) No delirium and normal neurological examination (N = 22) Delirium and/or abnormal neurological examination (N = 118) p
Age - median [IQR] 62 [52; 70] 65 [48; 71] 62 [52; 71] 0.302
Male (n, %) 100 (71.4) 11 (50.0) 89 (75.4) 0.015
Medical history
Neurological medical history (n, %) 22 (15.7) 4 (18.1) 18 (15.3) 0.707
  Stroke/transient ischemic attack 9 (6.4) 0 (0.0) 9 (8.0) 0.354
  Partial epilepsy 2 (1.4) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.8) 1
  Mild cognitive alteration 4 (2.9) 1 (4.5) 3 (2.7) 0.499
  Migraine 5 (3.6) 1 (4.5) 4 (3.4) 0.580
  Trauma brain injury 2 (1.4) 1 (4.5) 1 (0.9) 0.291
  Aneurysm 1 (0.7) 1 (4.5) 0 (0.0) 0.157
Cardiovascular diseases—n(%) 70 (50.0) 12 (54.5) 58 (49.2) 0.642
Malignancies/hemopathies—n(%) 21 (15.0) 5 (22.7) 16 (13.6) 0.423
Immune diseases—n(%) 4 (2.9) 2 (9,1) 2 (1.7) 0.233
Diabetes—n(%) 21 (15.0) 3 (13.6) 18 (15.3) 1
Chronic liver disease—n(%) 2 (1.4) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.7) 1
Chronic renal disease—n(%) 9 (6.4) 3 (13.6) 6 (5.1) 0.300
Respiratory disease—n(%) 22 (15.7) 2 (9,1) 20 (16.9) 0.566
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 2 (1.4) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.7) 1
  Asthma 5 (3.6) 1 (4.5) 4 (3.4) 1
  Obstructive sleep apnea 16 (11.4) 1 (4.5) 15 (12.7) 0.482
SAPS II—median [IQR] 49 [37; 64] 51 [34; 61] 49 [38; 63] 0.647
SOFA—median [IQR] 7 [4; 8] 6 [4; 8] 7 [5; 8] 0.486
Antiviral treatments—n(%)
 Lopinavir + ritonavir 46 (32.9) 5 (22.7) 41 (34.7) 0.271
 Remdesivir 11 (7.9) 0 (0.0) 11 (9.3) 0.282
 Hydroxychloroquine/azithromycine 52 (37.1) 8 (36.4) 44 (37.3) 0.934
 Tocilizumab 3 (2.1) 1 (4.5) 2 (1.7) 0.807
 Anakinra 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.8) 1
 Dexamethasone 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.8) 1
 None 25 (17.9) 7 (31.8) 18 (15.3) 0.130
Positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in nasopharyngeal swabs 140 (100) 22 (100) 118 (100) 1
Chest CT scan suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 infection 139 (99.3) 21 (95.5) 118 (100) 0.157
  1. ICU intensive care unit, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, RT-PCR real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, SAPSII simplified acute physiology score II