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Table 1 Patient and hospital characteristics during the intensive care unit for those who survived to hospital discharge

From: Association between delirium in the intensive care unit and subsequent neuropsychiatric disorders

  Total (n = 4033) Deliriuma p value
Characteristic Delirium (n = 1799) No delirium (n = 2234)
Patient characteristics on ICU admission
 Age, median (IQR) years 60 (46–71) 60 (46–70) 60 (46–71) 0.85
 Male sex, no. (%) 2744 (68.0) 1278 (71.0) 1466 (65.6) < 0.001
 Reason for ICU admission, no. (%)b
  Medical 2172 (54.9) 939 (52.8) 1233 (56.7) < 0.001
  Surgical 1221 (30.9) 449 (25.2) 772 (35.5)
  Neurological 205 (5.2) 143 (8.0) 62 (2.9)
  Trauma 356 (9.0) 249 (14.0) 107 (4.9)
 Comorbidities, no. (%)c
  AIDS 6 (0.2) 1 (0.1) 5 (0.2) 0.24
  Acute myocardial infarction 270 (6.7) 140 (7.8) 130 (5.8) 0.011
  Cancer 587 (14.6) 210 (11.7) 377 (16.8) < 0.001
  Cerebrovascular disease 201 (5.0) 143 (8.0) 58 (2.6) < 0.001
  Congestive heart failure 435 (10.8) 206 (11.5) 229 (10.2) 0.19
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 699 (17.3) 321 (17.9) 378 (16.9) 0.38
  Diabetes 518 (12.8) 230 (12.8) 288 (12.9) 0.99
  Diabetes + complications 694 (17.2) 324 (18.1) 370 (16.5) 0.19
  Hemiplegia or paraplegia 90 (2.2) 53 (3.0) 37 (1.7) 0.005
  Metastatic cancer 167 (4.1) 57 (3.2) 110 (4.9) 0.006
  Mild liver disease 196 (4.9) 108 (6.0) 88 (3.9) 0.002
  Moderate/severe liver disease 104 (2.6) 62 (3.5) 42 (1.9) 0.002
  Peptic ulcer disease 153 (3.8) 72 (4.0) 81 (3.6) 0.51
  Peripheral vascular disease 228 (5.7) 106 (5.9) 122 (5.4) 0.52
  Renal disease 207 (5.1) 97 (5.4) 110 (4.9) 0.47
  Rheumatoid disease 61 (1.5) 29 (1.6) 32 (1.4) 0.62
 Charlson Comorbidity Score, median (IQR) 1 (0–3) 1 (0–2) 1 (0–3) 0.17
 SOFA score on ICU admission, median (IQR) 6 (3–9) 7 (5–10) 5 (3–7) < 0.001
 APACHE II score on ICU admission, median (IQR) 18 (13–23) 20 (15–26) 16 (11–21) < 0.001
 Glasgow Coma Scale score on ICU admission, median (IQR) 15 (13–15) 14 (11–15) 15 (15–15) < 0.001
Interventions received in ICU
 Invasive mechanical ventilation 2535 (62.9) 1463 (81.3) 1072 (48.0) < 0.001
 Non-invasive mechanical ventilation 569 (14.1) 276 (15.3) 293 (13.1) 0.043
 Continuous renal replacement therapy 181 (4.5) 145 (8.1) 36 (1.6) < 0.001
 Vasoactive medications 1770 (43.9) 1035 (57.5) 735 (32.9) < 0.001
Hospital characteristics
 ≥ 20 ICU beds, no. (%) 2161 (53.6) 1084 (60.3) 1077 (48.2) < 0.001
 ≥ 600 hospital beds, no. (%) 2404 (59.6) 1186 (65.9) 1218 (54.5) < 0.001
 Teaching hospital, no. (%) 3304 (81.9) 1571 (87.3) 1733 (77.6) < 0.001
 ≥ 24 h in ICU after ready for ICU discharge 1505 (37.3) 695 (38.6) 810 (36.3) 0.12
Patient characteristics on ICU discharge
 Length of ICU stay, median (IQR) days 4.1 (2.3–7.6) 6.6 (3.8–12.4) 2.9 (1.9–4.8) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: AIDS Auto-immune deficiency syndrome, APACHE II score Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II Score, ICU Intensive care unit, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
  2. aPatients who scored positive for delirium by the Intensive Care Unit Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) of a score greater than or equal to 4 at any time during the ICU were categorized as ever having delirium
  3. bMutually exclusive categories; 77 patients missing data
  4. cNon-mutually exclusive categories