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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies included in the meta-analysis and systematic review

From: Cardiac injury associated with severe disease or ICU admission and death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis and systematic review

Study Study period and location Study design Population, N Male, N (%) Median/mean age, year Non-severe disease/severe disease, N Non-ICU/ICU, N Survivors/Non-survivors, N Definition of severe disease Study population Quality score
Wang DW et al. [16] Jan 1 to Jan 28, 2020, Wuhan, China SC, retrospective case series 138 75 (54.3) 56 (IQR: 42–68) NA 102/36 NA Developed ARDS Consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP 9
Wu CM et al. (a) [17] Dec 25, 2019, to Jan 26, 2020, Wuhan, China SC, retrospective cohort study 201* 128 (63.7) 51 (IQR: 43–60) 117/84 NA 40/44 Developed ARDS Patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia 9
Yang XB et al. [18] Dec 24, 2019, to Jan 26, 2020, Wuhan, China SC, retrospective, observational study 52 35 (67.3) 59.7 (SD: 13.3) NA NA 20/32 NA Critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia 8
Huang CL et al. [2] Dec 16, 2019, to Jan 2, 2020, Wuhan, China NA, retrospective 41 30 (73.2) 49 (IQR: 41–58) NA 28/13 35/6 Required high-flow nasal cannula or higher-level oxygen support measures to correct hypoxemia Patients identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection and admitted hospital 8
Chen D et al. [19] Jan 11 to Feb 15, 2020, Wenzhou, China, MC, retrospective study 175 83 (47.4) 46 (IQR: 34–54) 40/135 NA NA Showed pneumonia and any of acute respiratory distress syndrome Patients with COVID-19 8
Fu L et al. [20] Jan 1 to Jan 30,2020, Wuhan, China SC, retrospective cohort study 200 99 (49.5) NA NA NA 166/34 NA Patients with confirmed COVID-19 8
Guan WJ et al. [21] Jan 1 to Jan 29,2020, China MC, retrospective study 1099 640 (58.2) 47 (IQR: 35–58) 926/173 NA 1084/15 NA Patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV ARD 8
Hui H et al. [22] Jan 21 to Feb 03, 2020, Beijing, China SC, retrospective study 41 19 (46.3) 47 (IQR: 35.5–64) 34/7 NA NA NA Patients with confirmed COVID-19 7
Liu YL et al. [23] Jan 2 to Feb 12, 2020, Wuhan, China SC, retrospective study 109 59 (54.1) 55 (IQR: 43–66) 56/53 NA 78/31 Developed ARDS Patients with confirmed COVID-19 8
Liu L et al. [24] Jan 20 to Feb 3, 2020, Chongqing, China SC, retrospective case series 51 32 (62.7) 45 (IQR: 34–51) 44/7 NA NA NA Patients with confirmed COVID-19 8
Qi D et al. [25] Jan 19 to Feb 16, 2020, Chongqing, China MC, retrospective, descriptive study 267 149 (55.8) 48 (IQR: 35–65) 217/50 214/53 263/4 According to the American Thoracic Society guideline Patients with COVID-19 confirmed by real-time RT-PCR 7
Wang YF et al. [26] Jan 1 to Feb 10, 2020, Wuhan, China SC, retrospective 110 48 (43.6) NA 72/38 NA NA Fever or suspected respiratory infection, plus one of a respiratory rate > 30 breaths/min, severe respiratory distress, or SpO2 < 90% on room air Patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia 8
Wu CM et al. (b) [27] Dec 25, 2019 to Jan 27, 2020, Wuhan, China SC, retrospective cohort study 188 119 (63.3) 51.9 (SD: 14.26) NA 138/50 145/4 NA Patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia 8
Xu HY et al. [28] Jan 02 to Feb 14, 2020, NA NA, retrospective 53 28 (52.8) NA 34/19 45/8 53/3 More likely to have underlying comorbidities, and AMI Consecutive laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP 7
Xu YH et al. [29] Jan 14 to Feb 28, 2020, Guangdong, China MC, retrospective, observational study 45 29 (64.4) 56.7 (SD: 15.4) 25/20 0/45 44/1 Defined as those required oxygen therapy, symptoms of respiratory distress or required mechanical ventilation critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia
RT-PCR confirmed positive patients
8
Liu YB et al. [30] Jan 10 to Feb 24, 2020, Guangzhou, China SC, retrospective 291 133 (45.7) 48.1 (IQR: 34–62) 262/29 265/26 290/1 NA Laboratory-confirmed patients with NCIP 8
Peng YD et al. [31] Jan 20 to Feb, 15, 2020, Wuhan, China SC, retrospective, cohort study 112 53 (47.0) 62 (IQR: 55–67) 96/16 NA 84/28 Required mechanical ventilation; shock; combined with other organ failure COVID-19 patients with CVD 7
Zhang GQ et al. [32] Jan 2 to Feb, 10, 2020, Wuhan, China SC, retrospective case series study 221 108 (48.9) 55 (IQR: 39–66.5) 166/55 NA 209/12 Fever plus one of these conditions, including respiratory rate ≥ 30 breaths/min, severe respiratory distress, SpO2 ≤ 93% on room air, occurrence of respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, shock and other organ failure Patients who were confirmed diagnosed as COVID-19 according to WHO interim guidance 8
Liu T et al. [33] Jan 21, to Feb 16, 2020, Wuhan, China NA, retrospective 80 34 (42.5) 53 (range: 26–86) 11/69 NA 80/0 Defined when any of the following criteria was met: dyspnea, respiration rate ≥ 30 times/min; oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter ≤93% in resting state; partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio ≤ 300 mmHg SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid or RT-PCR confirmed positive patients 8
Shi SB et al. [4] Jan 20, to Feb 10, 2020, Wuhan, China SC, retrospective cohort study 416 205 (49.3) 64 (range: 21–95) 319/97 NA 359/57 NA Consecutive inpatients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 9
Wu J et al. [34] Jan 20 to Feb 20,2020, Jiangsu and Anhui Province, China MC, retrospective case series 280 151 (53.9) 43.1 (SD:19.02) 197/83 NA NA NA Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 8
Chen T et al. [35] Jan 13, to Feb 28, 2020, Wuhan, China SC, retrospective 274 171 (62) 62 (IQR: 44–70) NA NA 161/113 NA Patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia 8
Guo T et al. [36] Jan 23, to Feb 23, 2020, Wuhan, China SC, retrospective 187 91 (48.7) 58.5 (SD:14.66) NA NA 144/43 NA Patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia 9
  1. AMI acute myocardial injury, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, CVD cardiovascular disease, 2019-nCoV novel coronavirus, IQR interquartile range, MC multicenter study, N number, NA not available, NCIP novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia, RT-PCR reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, SARS-CoV-2 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, SC single-center study, SD standard deviation