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Table 1 Baseline and clinical characteristics of study patients by BMI categories

From: Obesity paradox for critically ill patients may be modified by age: a retrospective observational study from one large database

Variables Total Underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) Normal weight (18.5 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 25 kg/m2) Overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2) Obesity grade 1 (30 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 35 kg/m2) Obesity grade 2 (35 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 40 kg/m2) Obesity grade 3 (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2)
Number of patients 148,783 (100%) 6328 (4.3%) 43,960 (29.5%) 43,923 (29.5%) 27,584 (18.5%) 13,881 (9.3%) 13,107 (8.8%)
Age
 Median, years 65 (53,76) 67 (54,80) 67 (53,80) 66 (54,77) 64 (53,74) 62 (52,72) 60 (49,68)
 ≤ 30 8348 (6) 506 (8) 3530 (8) 2107 (5) 1082 (4) 544 (4) 579 (4)
 31–40 8683 (6) 314 (5) 2503 (6) 2399 (5) 1547 (6) 891 (6) 1029 (8)
 41–50 14,947 (10) 467 (7) 3801 (9) 4056 (9) 2963 (11) 1712 (12) 1948 (15)
 51–60 27,739 (19) 1086 (17) 6836 (16) 7847 (18) 5519 (20) 3119 (22) 3332 (25)
 61–70 33,442 (22) 1193 (19) 8304 (19) 9728 (22) 6933 (25) 3698 (27) 3586 (27)
 71–80 30,823 (21) 1277 (20) 8604 (20) 9926 (23) 6179 (22) 2790 (20) 2047 (16)
 > 80 24,801 (17) 1485 (23) 10,382 (24) 7860 (18) 3361 (12) 1127 (8) 586 (4)
Gender: male 80,294 (54) 2669 (42) 23,526 (54) 26,247 (60) 15,617 (57) 6973 (50) 5262 (40)
BMI, kg/m2 27.5 (23.5, 32.7) 17.1 (16, 17.9) 22.4 (20.9, 23.7) 27.3 (26.1, 28.5) 32.1 (30.9, 33.4) 37 (35.9, 38.3) 44.7 (41.9, 49.6)
Ethnicity
 Caucasian 114,199 (77) 4766 (75) 33,565 (76) 33,786 (77) 21,462 (78) 10,696 (77) 9924 (76)
 African American 16,537 (11) 837 (13) 4597 (10) 4364 (10) 2975 (11) 1753 (13) 2011 (15)
 Hispanic 5763 (4) 197 (3) 1754 (4) 1909 (4) 1034 (4) 467 (3) 402 (3)
 Asian 2494 (2) 191 (3) 1146 (3) 745 (2) 277 (1) 85 (1) 50 (0)
 Native American 1090 (1) 33 (1) 290 (1) 303 (1) 198 (1) 128 (1) 138 (1)
 Others/unknown 8700 (6) 304 (5) 2608 (6) 2816 (6) 1638 (6) 752 (5) 582 (4)
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 74,964 (50) 2536 (40) 19,663 (45) 22,171 (50) 15,088 (55) 7887 (57) 7619 (58)
 Diabetes mellitus 43,420 (29) 1058 (17) 9333 (21) 11,840 (27) 9432 (34) 5620 (40) 6137 (47)
 Stroke 12,315 (8) 590 (9) 3920 (9) 3716 (8) 2195 (8) 1015 (7) 879 (7)
 Tumor 22,356 (15) 1295 (20) 7465 (17) 6674 (15) 3736 (14) 1772 (13) 1414 (11)
 Respiratory disease 22,912 (15) 1565 (25) 6733 (15) 5736 (13) 3838 (14) 2252 (16) 2788 (21)
 CHF 21,868 (15) 734 (12) 5683 (13) 5904 (13) 4164 (15) 2463 (18) 2920 (22)
 Cirrhosis 4144 (3) 175 (3) 1308 (3) 1224 (3) 755 (3) 362 (3) 320 (2)
 CKD 18,134 (12) 663 (10) 5131 (12) 5186 (12) 3441 (12) 1813 (13) 1900 (14)
ICU types
 Med-SurgICU 82,057 (55) 3724 (59) 24,922 (57) 23,652 (54) 14,738 (53) 7519 (54) 7502 (57)
 Cardiac ICU 10,711 (7) 511 (8) 3047 (7) 3148 (7) 2028 (7) 1000 (7) 977 (7)
 CCU-CTICU 12,555 (8) 354 (6) 3186 (7) 3894 (9) 2655 (10) 1371 (10) 1095 (8)
 CSICU 5528 (4) 183 (3) 1492 (3) 1802 (4) 1114 (4) 531 (4) 406 (3)
 CTICU 4685 (3) 138 (2) 1246 (3) 1533 (3) 1032 (4) 457 (3) 279 (2)
 MICU 12,758 (9) 677 (11) 3861 (9) 3566 (8) 2163 (8) 1190 (9) 1301 (10)
 Neuro ICU 11,245 (8) 357 (6) 3445 (8) 3457 (8) 2182 (8) 1003 (7) 801 (6)
 SICU 9244 (6) 384 (6) 2761 (6) 2871 (7) 1672 (6) 810 (6) 746 (6)
ICU scoring systems
 SOFA score 4 (2, 7) 5 (2, 7) 4 (2, 7) 4 (2, 6) 4 (2, 6) 4 (2, 7) 4 (2, 7)
 APS 38 (27, 53) 42 (30, 59) 38 (28, 54) 37 (26, 52) 36 (26, 52) 37 (26, 53) 39 (27, 55)
 APACHE IV score 50 (37, 68) 56 (42, 74) 52 (38, 69) 50 (37, 67) 49 (36, 66) 49 (35, 66) 49 (36, 67)
ICU LOS, days 2 (1, 4) 2 (1, 4) 2 (1, 4) 2 (1, 4) 2 (1, 4) 2 (1, 4) 2 (1, 4)
Hospital LOS, days 5 (3, 8) 5 (3, 9) 5 (3, 8) 5 (3, 8) 5 (3, 8) 5 (3, 9) 5 (3, 9)
ICU mortality 7938 (5) 506 (8) 2592 (6) 2182 (5) 1269 (5) 705 (5) 684 (5)
Hospital mortality 12,867 (9) 897 (14) 4289 (10) 3536 (8) 2032 (7) 1064 (8) 1049 (8)
  1. Data are median (interquartile range) or no./total (%)
  2. BMI body mass index, CHF chronic heart failure, CKD chronic kidney disease, ICU intensive care unit, CCU coronary care unit, CTICU cardiothoracic ICU, CSICU cardiac surgery ICU, MICU medical ICU, SICU surgical ICU, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, APS Acute Physiology Score, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, LOS length of stay