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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the included studies

From: Benefit of hydrocortisone, thiamine, and vitamin C for patients with sepsis or septic shock? Too early to draw conclusions

Study ID Country Study design No. (HVT/Con) Patient Intervention
HVT group Control
Chang 2020, PMID: [32243943] China Single-blinded RCT 40/40 Adult patients with sepsis or septic shock and procalcitonin PCT ≥ 2 ng/mL - IV hydrocortisone (50 mg every 6 h for 7 days)
- IV vitamin C (1.5 g every 6 h for 4 days)
- IV thiamine (200 mg every 12 h for 4 days)
- Standard care
- Placebo (normal saline)
- Standard care
Fujii 2020, PMID: [31950979] Australia, New Zealand, Brazil Multicenter, open-label RCT 107/104 Adult patients with septic shock - IV hydrocortisone (50 mg every 6 h for a maximum of 7 days)
- IV vitamin C (1.5 g every 6 h for a maximum of 10 days)
- IV thiamine (200 mg every 12 h for a maximum of 10 days)
- Standard care
- IV hydrocortisone (50 mg every 6 h)
- Standard care
Igelesia 2020, PMID: [32194058] USA Double-blinded RCT 68/69 Adult patients with sepsis or septic shock - IV hydrocortisone (50 mg every 6 h)
- IV vitamin C (1.5 g every 6 h)
-IV thiamine (200 mg every 12 h) for a maximum of 4 days
- Standard care
- Placebo (normal saline)
- Standard care
Wani 2020, PMID: [31990246] India Open-label RCT 50/50 Adult patients with sepsis or septic shock and serum lactate level of > 2 mmol/L - IV hydrocortisone (50 mg q 6 hourly for 7 days or until ICU discharge)
- IV vitamin C (1.5 g every 6 h for 4 days or until discharge)
- IV thiamine (200 mg q 12 hourly for 4 days or until discharge)
- Standard care
- Standard care alone
Litwak 2019, PMID [30970560] USA Retrospective cohort study 47/47 Adult patient with septic shock - IV hydrocortisone (200–300 mg every day)
- IV vitamin C (1.5 g every 6 h)
- IV thiamine (200 mg every 12 h) for 4 days
- Standard care
- Standard care and/or IV hydrocortisone
Marik 2017, PMID: [27940189] USA Retrospective cohort study 47/47 Adult patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and PCT > 2 ng/mL - IV hydrocortisone (50 mg every 6 h for 7 days or until ICU discharge)
- IV vitamin C (1.5 g every 6 h for 4 days or until ICU discharge)
- IV thiamine (200 mg every 12 h for 4 days or until ICU discharge)
- IV hydrocortisone (50 mg every 6 h)
- Standard care
Mitchell 2019, PMID: [31469984] USA Retrospective cohort study 38/38 Adult patients with severe sepsis or septic shock - IV hydrocortisone (50 mg every 6 h, 100 mg every 8 h, or 10 mg per h for 7 days)
- IV vitamin C (1.5 g every 6 h for 4 days)
- IV thiamine (200 mg IV every 1 for 4 days)
- Standard care
- IV hydrocortisone
- Standard care
Sadaka 2019, PMID: [31315499] USA Retrospective cohort study 31/31 Adult patients with septic shock - IV hydrocortisone (50 mg every 6 h for 7 days)
- IV vitamin C (1.5 g every 6 h for 4 days)
- IV thiamine (200 mg every 12 h for 4 days)
- Standard care
- Standard care alone
Wald 2020, PMID: [31916841] USA Retrospective cohort study 43/43(a)/43(b) Pediatric patients with septic shock - IV hydrocortisone (50 mg/m2/day divided every 6 h)
- IV vitamin C (30 mg/kg/dose every 6 h for 4 days; maximum 1.5 g/dose)
- IV thiamine (4 mg/kg/day for 4 days; maximum 200 mg/dose)
- Standard care
a) Hydrocortisone only; b) standard care alone
  1. PMID PubMed unique identifier; RCT randomized controlled trial; HVT hydrocortisone, vitamin C, and thiamine; Con control; PCT procalcitonin; IV intravenous; h hour