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Table 1 Presenting characteristics of four types of COVID-19 in intensive care patients (n = 151)

From: Classification of COVID-19 in intensive care patients

  A (n = 37) B (n = 45) C (n = 27) D (n = 42)
Age, years 77 (70–81) 62 (52–70) 65 (51–74) 53 (43–58)
Signs and symptoms
 Cough 26 (70) 45 (100) 12 (44) 34 (81)
 Dyspnea 24 (65) 41 (91) 14 (52) 13 (31)
 Fatigue 19 (51) 27 (60) 21 (78) 1 (2)
 Expectoration 6 (16) 40 (89) 1 (4) 16 (38)
 Diarrhea 5 (14) 20 (44) 7 (26) 9 (21)
 Anorexia 6 (16) 15 (33) 9 (33) 1 (2)
Original comorbidities
 Hypertension 20 (54) 15 (33) 17 (63) 8 (19)
 Diabetes 13 (35) 6 (13) 7 (26) 5 (12)
 CVD 15 (41) 0 6 (22) 2 (5)
Vital signs
 Respiratory rate, rpm 25 (20–32) 22 (20–26) 20 (20–23) 21 (20–25)
 SpO2/FiO2 99 (90–158) 222 (100–294) 297 (237–336) 298 (248–345)
Laboratory findings
Routine blood test
  WBCs, × 109/L
   Day 1 11.1 (8.0–15.5) 7.4 (5.3–10.2) 5.6 (4.5–6.5) 5.2 (3.5–7.2)
   Day 3 12.5 (9.2–17.4) 10.5 (8.3–12.9) 8.3 (5.5–9.3) 6.6 (3.9–8.3)
   Day 5 11.1 (7.4–12.7) 11.5 (7.7–14.6) 6.6 (4.5–7.2) 7.2 (5.1–10.3)
  Absolute lymphocytes, × 109/L
   Day 1 0.5 (0.3–0.7) 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 0.8 (0.7–1.2) 1.0 (0.7–1.4)
   Day 3 0.4 (0.3–0.7) 0.6 (0.4–0.8) 0.8 (0.6–1.7) 0.9 (0.6–1.0)
   Day 5 0.4 (0.3–0.6) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 1.3 (0.8–2.2)
  Absolute neutrophils, ×109/L
   Day 1 9.5 (7.1–15.0) 5.5 (4.3–9.1) 4.2 (3.0–5.1) 3.1 (2.2–5.0)
   Day 3 12.0 (8.2–15.8) 9.5 (7.2–12.0) 5.7 (4.3–8.8) 4.6 (2.5–7.1)
   Day 5 10.2 (6.5–11.8) 10.0 (6.1–13.4) 4.6 (2.7–6.1) 4.7 (3.1–7.2)
  RDW-CV 13.4 (12.8–14.1) 12.2 (11.9–12.8) 12.6 (11.8–13.0) 12.2 (11.8–12.7)
Inflammatory marker
  hs-CRP, mg/L 126 (76–190) 80 (42–109) 19 (5–49) 28 (10–70)
  IL-2R, U/ml 1341 (940–1809) 1038 (678–1185) 701 (430–813) 685 (439–928)
  IL-6, pg/ml 68 (37–137) 43 (21–79) 10 (2–20) 14 (5–30)
  IL-8, pg/ml 42 (21–95) 21 (13–40) 12 (7–24) 15 (10–21)
  IL-10, pg/ml 15 (9–24) 7 (3–11) 3 (3–6) 3 (3–9)
  TNF-α, pg/ml 15 (10–23) 9 (8–11) 7 (5–9) 8 (7–10)
Corticosteroid therapy 28 (76) 38 (84) 13 (48) 27 (64)
  1. Continuous variables were described as median (IQR) while categorical variables were expressed as frequencies (%). All records were measured at admission to intensive care wards unless otherwise indicated. Multiple group comparison was done with Kruskal–Wallis test; proportions for categorical variables were compared using Fisher’s exact test. All calculated P values were less than or equal to 0.001 except for respiratory rate (P = 0.004), absolute lymphocytes at day 3 since admission (P = 0.013), and corticosteroid therapy (P = 0.013)
  2. Abbreviations: CVD cardiovascular disease, rpm breaths per minute, SpO2 peripheral oxygen saturation, FiO2 fraction of inspired oxygen, WBC white blood cell, RDW red cell distribution width