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Table 3 Univariable Cox regression model for predicting 28-day mortality in 516 patients with COVID-19 at admission

From: Development and validation of a risk factor-based system to predict short-term survival in adult hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a multicenter, retrospective, cohort study

Factors Univariable HR (95% CI) P value
Age, years#   1.05 (1.04–1.07) < 0.001
Male sex (vs female)   2.76 (1.69–4.50) < 0.001
Symptoms onset to admission, days#   0.98 (0.93–1.02) 0.293
Fever (yes vs no)   0.85 (0.46–1.55) 0.587
Dyspnea (yes vs no)   1.79 (1.17–2.74) 0.008
Comorbidity (yes vs no)   1.41 (0.93–2.15) 0.108
Respiratory rate, breaths per min ≥ 24 3.15 (2.07–4.81) < 0.001
< 24 1 (ref)  
Reticular patterns (yes vs no)   2.83 (1.55–5.16) < 0.001
CURB-65 score#   3.49 (2.81–4.33) < 0.001
qSOFA score#   3.56 (2.44–5.19) < 0.001
Leucocytes count, × 109/L#   1.17 (1.13–1.21) < 0.001
Lymphocyte count, × 109/L#   0.12 (0.07–0.23) < 0.001
Neutrophils count, × 109/L#   1.04 (1.02–1.05) < 0.001
NLR > 8.0 9.74 (5.96–15.94) < 0.001
≤ 8.0 1 (ref)  
Platelets count, × 109/L < 125 3.94 (2.51–6.18) < 0.001
≥ 125 1 (ref)  
Hemoglobin, g/L#   1.01 (1.00–1.03) 0.038
Albumin, g/L#   0.87 (0.83–0.92) < 0.001
Total bilirubin, μmol/L > 20.0 5.69 (3.47–9.33) < 0.001
13.0–20.0 1.93 (1.14–3.26) 0.014
< 13.0 1 (ref)  
Direct bilirubin, μmol/L > 5.0 4.95 (3.22–7.60) < 0.001
≤ 5.0 1 (ref)  
ALT, U/L > 40.0 1.49 (0.99–2.25) 0.057
≤ 40.0 1 (ref)  
Urea nitrogen, mmol/L > 8.2 9.65 (5.49–16.93) < 0.001
5.0–8.2 3.83 (2.19–6.72) < 0.001
< 5.0 1 (ref)  
d-dimer, mg/L > 1.0 7.33 (3.61–14.88) < 0.001
0.5–1.0 2.97 (1.25–7.05) 0.014
< 0.5 1 (ref)  
PT, s > 16.0 4.41 (2.55–7.62) < 0.001
≤ 16.0 1 (ref)  
CRP, mg/L > 40.0 19.96 (4.90–81.40) < 0.001
8.0–40.0 5.04 (1.15–22.17) 0.032
< 8.0 1 (ref)  
Procalcitonin, ng/mL#   1.20 (1.06–1.36) 0.005
LDH level, U/L > 360 23.67 (11.86–47.24) < 0.001
≤ 360 1 (ref)  
  1. # per 1 unit increase
  2. HR hazard ratio, ref reference, CURB-65 CURB-65 Score for Pneumonia Severity, qSOFA quick Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment, NLR neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, CRP C-reactive protein, PT prothrombin time, CI confidence interval