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Table 2 Treatment and complications of 828 patients with COVID-19

From: Development and validation of a risk factor-based system to predict short-term survival in adult hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a multicenter, retrospective, cohort study

Characteristics Enrolled patients (n = 828) Training cohort (n = 516) External validation cohort 1 (n = 186) External validation cohort 2 (n = 126)
Treatment
 Antiviral therapy n (%) 739 (89.25%) 448 (86.82%) 171 (91.94%) 120 (95.24%)
  Arbidol n (%) 595 (71.86%) 384 (74.42%) 161 (86.56%) 50 (39.68%)
  Oseltamivir n (%) 144 (17.39%) 88 (17.05%) 14 (7.53%) 42 (33.33%)
  Remdesivir n (%) 18 (2.17%) 12 (2.33%) 4 (2.15%) 2 (15.9%)
  Ritonavir/lopinavir n (%) 143 (17.27%) 98 (18.99%) 33 (17.74%) 12 (9.52%)
 Antibiotics n (%) 657 (79.35%) 416 (80.62%) 123 (66.13%) 118 (93.65%)
 Antifungal therapy n (%) 34 (41.06%) 24 (4.65%) 9 (4.84%) 1 (0.79%)
 Corticosteroids n (%) 375 (45.29%) 201 (38.95%) 71 (38.17%) 103 (81.75%)
 Gamma globulin n (%) 228 (27.54%) 121 (23.45%) 25 (13.44%) 82 (65.08%)
 Hydroxychloroquine n (%) 57 (6.88%) 37 (7.17%) 7 (3.76%) 13 (10.32%)
 Vasopressors n (%) 153 (18.48%) 91 (17.64%) 37 (19.89%) 25 (19.84%)
 Oxygen therapy n (%) 681 (82.25%) 421 (81.59%) 160 (86.02%) 100 (79.37%)
 Mechanical ventilation n (%) 149 (18.00%) 90 (17.44%) 32 (17.20%) 27 (21.43%)
 Invasive mechanical ventilation n (%) 75 (9.06%) 54 (10.47%) 19 (10.22%) 2 (1.58%)
 Continuous renal replacement therapy n (%) 32 (3.86%) 20 (3.88%) 11 (5.91%) 1 (0.79%)
Outcomes
 ICU admission n (%) 100 (12.08%) 61 (11.82%) 27 (14.52%) 12 (9.52%)
 Discharged n (%) 682 (82.37%) 420 (81.40%) 156 (83.87%) 106 (84.13%)
 Decreased n (%) 146 (17.63%) 96 (18.60%) 30 (16.13%) 20 (15.87%)
 Illness onset to death, days Median (IQR) 20.0 (14.0–26.0) 20.0 (14.0–28.0) 22.0 (16.5–36.3) 21.0 (13.8–23.8)
 Mortality rate % (95% CI) 17.63% (15.19–20.38%) 18.60% (15.48–22.19%) 16.13% (11.54–22.09%) 15.87% (10.52–23.25%)
Proximate causes of death in 146 patients
 ARDS 143 (97.95%)
 Heart failure or acute cardiac injury 40 (27.40%)
 Acute renal injury 32 (21.92%)
 Acute liver injury 15 (10.27%)
 Septic shock 31 (21.23%)
 Acute pulmonary embolism 2 (1.37%)
 Gastrointestinal bleeding 5 (3.42%)